Association Between Oral Pathogens in Infectious Endocarditis and Myocardial Infarction Risk

Azhari Gani

Abstract


Background: This study investigated the association between infectious endocarditis caused by oral pathogens and an increased risk of myocardial infarction. The primary focus is on how oral pathogens, such as Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus aureus, commonly found in the oral flora, can enter the bloodstream and contribute to the development of infective endocarditis. Objective: This study aims to highlight the importance of oral health as an important aspect in preventing cardiovascular disease, especially for individuals with a history of heart valve disease or other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: This study investigates how this pathogen attaches to damaged or abnormal heart valves, causing inflammation and further damage, which can lead to embolism formation. These emboli have the potential to block blood flow to the heart, causing ischemia and triggering myocardial infarction. The study also explored the role of inflammation and the immune response to infection in increasing the risk of arterial plaque formation and thrombosis. Results: The study found that these oral pathogens can enter the bloodstream through dental procedures or poor oral health conditions and attach to damaged or abnormal heart valves. This attachment causes inflammation and damage to the valve and the formation of emboli, which can move to the heart and block the coronary arteries. The result is an increased risk of ischemia and myocardial infarction, highlighting the importance of good oral health and effective cardiovascular risk management to prevent these heart health complications. Conclusion: Streptococcus viridans can enter the bloodstream and attach to damaged heart valves, causing inflammation and embolism formation that has the potential to block blood flow to the heart, causing ischemia and increasing the risk of heart attack and related cardiovascular complications.


Keywords


Oral Pathogens, Infectious Endocarditis, Myocardial Infarction Risk, Streptococcus viridans

Full Text:

PDF

References


El Kholy K, Genco RJ, Van Dyke TE. Oral infections and cardiovascular disease. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 2015;26(6):315-21.

Schulz S, Schlitt A, Hofmann B, Schaller HG, Reichert S. Periodontal pathogens and their role in cardiovascular outcome. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2020;47(2):173-81.

Tonelli A, Lumngwena EN, Ntusi NA. The oral microbiome in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Nature Reviews Cardiology 2023;20(6):386-403.

Pussinen PJ, Könönen E. Oral health: A modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases or a confounded association? European journal of preventive cardiology 2016;23(8):834-38.

Long B, Koyfman A. Infectious endocarditis: an update for emergency clinicians. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2018;36(9):1686-92.

Parahitiyawa NB, Jin LJ, Leung WK, Yam WC, Samaranayake LP. Microbiology of odontogenic bacteremia: beyond endocarditis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2009;22(1):46-64, Table of Contents.

Del Giudice C, Vaia E, Liccardo D, et al. Infective endocarditis: a focus on oral microbiota. Microorganisms 2021;9(6):1218.

Carinci F, Martinelli M, Contaldo M, et al. Focus on periodontal disease and development of endocarditis. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2018;32(2 Suppl 1):143-47.

Fathima SN. An Update on Myocardial Infarction. Current Research and Trends in Medical Science and Technology 2021;1.

Montrief T, Davis WT, Koyfman A, Long B. Mechanical, inflammatory, and embolic complications of myocardial infarction: An emergency medicine review. The American journal of emergency medicine 2019;37(6):1175-83.

Park SY, Kim SH, Kang SH, et al. Improved oral hygiene care attenuates the cardiovascular risk of oral health disease: a population-based study from Korea. Eur Heart J 2019;40(14):1138-45.

Hu W, Wang X, Su G. Infective endocarditis complicated by embolic events: Pathogenesis and predictors. Clinical cardiology 2021;44(3):307-15.

Pagliaro BR, Cannata F, Stefanini GG, Bolognese L. Myocardial ischemia and coronary disease in heart failure. Heart Failure Reviews 2020;25(1):53-65.

Liesenborghs L, Meyers S, Vanassche T, Verhamme P. Coagulation: At the heart of infective endocarditis. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2020;18(5):995-1008.

Libby P. Inflammation during the life cycle of the atherosclerotic plaque. Cardiovascular Research 2021;117(13):2525-36.

Avci E, Dolapoglu A, Akgun DE. Role of cholesterol as a risk factor in cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol-Good, Bad and the Heart 2018.

Murillo H, Restrepo CS, Marmol-Velez JA, et al. Infectious diseases of the heart: pathophysiology, clinical and imaging overview. Radiographics 2016;36(4):963-83.

Lichota A, Szewczyk EM, Gwozdzinski K. Factors affecting the formation and treatment of thrombosis by natural and synthetic compounds. International journal of molecular sciences 2020;21(21):7975.

Severino P, D’Amato A, Pucci M, et al. Ischemic heart disease and heart failure: role of coronary ion channels. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2020;21(9):3167.

Vincent LL, Otto CM. Infective endocarditis: update on epidemiology, outcomes, and management. Current cardiology reports 2018;20:1-9.

Syed I. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients with Infective Endocarditis (IE): University of Toronto (Canada); 2018.

Tajabadi M, Orimi HG, Ramzgouyan MR, et al. Regenerative strategies for the consequences of myocardial infarction: Chronological indication and upcoming visions. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 2022;146:112584.

Hashmi S, Al-Salam S. Acute myocardial infarction and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: a comparison. International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 2015;8(8):8786.

Rayes J, Bourne JH, Brill A, Watson SP. The dual role of platelet‐innate immune cell interactions in thrombo‐inflammation. Research and practice in thrombosis and haemostasis 2020;4(1):e12266.

Lyle AN, Raaz U. Killing me unsoftly: causes and mechanisms of arterial stiffness. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 2017;37(2):e1-e11.

Stark K, Massberg S. Interplay between inflammation and thrombosis in cardiovascular pathology. Nature Reviews Cardiology 2021;18(9):666-82.

Luo H, Wu B, Kamer AR, et al. Oral health, diabetes, and inflammation: effects of oral hygiene behaviour. International dental journal 2022;72(4):484-90.

Mosaddad SA, Tahmasebi E, Yazdanian A, et al. Oral microbial biofilms: an update. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 2019;38:2005-19.

Cahill TJ, Dayer M, Prendergast B, Thornhill M. Do patients at risk of infective endocarditis need antibiotics before dental procedures? bmj 2017;358.

Bumm CV, Folwaczny M. Infective endocarditis and oral health—A Narrative Review. Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy 2021;11(6):1403.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/jds.v8i2.37118

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

Indexed by:

JDS JDS JDS JDS JDS JDS

JDS JDS JDS JDS JDS JDS

JDS 

 
Tools:

JDS JDS JDS JDS JDS JDS

JDS JDS JDS

All papers published in FKG  USK Press are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Social Media: