Rifky Rizkiantino, Fachriyan Hasmi Pasaribu, Retno Damajanti Soejoedono, Wyanda Arnafia, Dinda Reisinta, I Wayan Teguh Wibawan


Red tilapia (Oreochromis hybrid) is Indonesia's leading freshwater fishery commodity susceptible to streptococcal bacterial infection. Many studies have been conducted on various efforts to prevent and treat this disease, one of which uses the immunoglobulin Y (IgY) molecule from chicken egg yolk. This study aimed to observe the biological function of IgY against Enterococcus faecalis as a cause of streptococcal-like infection. The agglutinin function was conducted by observing the growth of Enterococcus faecalis in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth media which was added with IgY suspension. The function of inhibin was performed using a spectrophotometric method to measure the level of turbidity of the bacterial suspension inoculated with IgY suspension. The bactericidal potential through the complementary activation pathway for red tilapia serum was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) method to evaluate the topography of the bacterial cell wall. The results of the study can be concluded that IgY anti-Enterococcus faecalis has the potential as an agglutinin, inhibin, and bactericidal agent through its putative potential in complement activation in streptococcal bacterial infections in red tilapia commodities.


biological functions; Enterococcus faecalis; immunoglobulin Y (IgY); streptococcal-like infection

Full Text:



Abdou, A.M., M. Kim, and K. Sato. 2013. Functional Proteins and Peptides of Hen's Egg Origin. In: Bioactive Food Peptides in Health and Disease. Hernández-Ledesma, B., and C. Hsieh (Eds). InTechOpen.

Anshary, H., R.A. Kurniawan, S. Sriwulan, R. Ramli, and D.V. Baxa. 2014. Isolation and molecular identification of the etiological agents of streptococcosis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nicotilus) cultured in net cages in Lake Sentani, Papua, Indonesia. SpringPlus [online serial]. 3(627):1–11.

Barnes, A.C., and A.E. Ellis. 2004. Role of capsule in serotypic differences and complement fixation by Lactococcus garvieae. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 16(2):207–214.

Barnes, A.C., F. M. Young, M.T. Horne, and A.E. Ellis. 2003. Streptococcus iniae: serological differences, presence of capsule and resistance to immune serum killing. Dis. Aquat. Organ. 53(3):241–247.

Boehm, T., N. Iwanami, and I. Hess. 2012. Evolution of the immune system in the lower vertebrates. Annu. Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet. 13:127-149.

Boesen, H.T., J.L. Larsen, and A.E. Ellis. 1999. Bactericidal activity by subagglutinating levels of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) antiserum to Vibrio anguillarum serogroup O1. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 9:633.

Boesen, H.T., N.J. Paczkowski, J.L. Larsen, C. Koch, and A.E. Ellis. 1999. Vibrio anguillarum resistance to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) serum: role of O-antigen structure of lipopolysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 67:294.

Boshra, H., J. Li, and J.O. Sunyer. 2006. Recent advances on the complement system of teleost fish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 20(2):239-262.

Campbell, R.D., A.W. Dodds, and R.R. Porter. 1980. The binding of human complement component C4 to antibody-antigen aggregates. Biochem. J. 189(1):67–80.

Chiller, J.M., H.O. Hodgins, and R.S. Weiser. 1969. Antibody response in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) II Studies on the kinetics of development of antibody producing cells and on complement and natural hemolysin. J. lmmun. 102(5):1202–1207.

Day, N.K.B., M.D. Gewurz, R. Johannsen, J. Finstad, and R.A. Good. 1970. Complement and complement-like activity in lower vertébrales and invertebrates. J. Exp. Med. 132(5):941–950.

[DJPB KKP] Direktorat Jenderal Perikanan Budidaya Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. 2018. Subsektor perikanan budidaya sepanjang tahun 2017 menunjukkan kinerja positif. [accessed 2019 Okt 01].

Dorson, M., C. Torchy, and C. Michel. 1979. Rainbow trout complement fixation used for titration of antibodies against several pathogens. Ann. Rech. Vet. 10(4):529–534.

Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health. 2009. Streptococcosis in tilapia: a more complex problem. (2009 06 Des, [accessed 2018 Nov 01].

Janeway, C.A., P. Travers, M. Walport, and M.J. Shlomchik. 2002. Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. 5th ed. Garland Science, New York.

Legler, D.W., E.E. Evans, and H.K. Dupree. 1967. Comparative immunology: serum complement of freshwater fishes. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 96:237–242.

Li, X-L, J-B Shuai, and W-H Fang. 2006. Protection of Carassius auratus Gibelio against infection by Aeromonas hydrophila using specific immunoglobulins from hen egg yolk. J. Zhejiang Univ. Science B. 7(11):922–928.

Mesnage, S. F., Chau, L. Dubost, and M. Arthur. 2008. Role of N-acetylglucosaminidase and N-acetylmuramidase activities in Enterococcus faecalis peptidoglycan metabolism. J. Bio. Chem. 283(28):19845–19853.

Nardi, F. 1938. Untersuchungen über die konstitution der hâmolysine der normalem Fischsera. Zeitschr. Immunitâtforsch. 94:505–520.

Nonaka, M., T. Fujii, T. Kaidoh, S. Natsuume-Sakai, N. Yamaguchi, and M. Takahashi. 1984. Purification of a lamprey complement protein homologous to the third component of the mammalian complement system. J. Immunol. 133(6):3242–3249.

Nonaka, M., and S.L. Smith. 2000. Complement system of bony and cartilaginous fish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 10(3):215–228.

Nonaka M. 2014. Evolution of the complement system. Subcell. Biochem. 80:31–43.

Paraf, A., and G. Peltre. 1991. Antigen-antibody Reaction. In: Immunoassays in Food and Agriculture. Paraf, A., and G. Peltre (Eds). Springer, Dordrecht, Berlin.

Parham, P. 2005. The Immune System. Garland Science Publishing, New York.

Pastoret, P-P., P. Griebel, H. Bazin, and A Govaerts. 1998. Handbook of Vertebrate Immunology. Academic Pr, San Diego.

Rahman, M., M.M. Rahman, S.C. Deb, M.S. Alam, M.J. Alam, and M.T. Islam. 2017. Molecular identification of multiple antibiotic resistant fish pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and their control by medicinal herbs. Sci. Rep. 7(3747):1–11.

Rizkiantino, R., I.W.T. Wibawan, F.H. Pasaribu, R.D. Soejoedono, W. Arnafia, and V. Ulyama, D.B. Wibowo. 2020a. Isolation and characterisation of the Enterococcus faecalis strain isolated from red tilapia (Oreochromis hybrid) in Indonesia: A preliminary report. J. Surv. Fish. Sci. 7(1):27–42.

Rizkiantino, R., I.W.T. Wibawan, F.H. Pasaribu, R.D. Soejoedono, O.N. Poetri, W. Arnafia, K.D. Sasih, and D. Reisinta. 2020b. The potential of adjuvant against production of antistreptococcal immunoglobulin y (IgY) in aquaculture. J. Kedokt. Hewan. 14(3):66–70.

Roche, A.M., A.L. Richard, J.T. Rahkola, E.N. Janoff, and J.N. Weiser. 2015. Antibody blocks acquisition of bacterial colonization through agglutination. Mucosal Immunol. 8(1):176–185.

Rubinstein, E., W.C. Kouns, L.K. Jennings, C. Boucheix, and R.C. Carroll. 1991. Interaction of two GPIIb/IIIa monoclonal antibodies with platelet Fc receptor (Fc gamma RII). Br. J. Haematol. 78(1):80–86.

Salamaga, B., T.K. Prajsnar, A. Jareño-Martinez, J. Willemse, M.A. Bewley, F. Chau F,and et al. 2017. Bacterial size matters: Multiple mechanisms controlling septum cleavage and diplococcus formation are critical for the virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. PLoS Pathog. 13(7):e1006526.

Schroeder Jr, H.W., and L. Cavacini. 2010. Structure and function of immunoglobulins. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 125(2 Suppl 2):S41-S52.

Silver, L.L. 2017. Fosfomycin: mechanism and resistance. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Med. 7:a025262.

Smith, S.L. 1998. Shark complement: an assessment. Immunol. Rev. 166:67-78.

Sunwoo, H.H., E.N. Lee, N. Gujral, and M.R. Suresh. 2010. Growth inhibition of Escherichia coli 987P by neutralizing IgY antibodies. Open Immunol. J. 3:1–8.

Taukhid, and U. Purwaningsih. 2011. Screening of Streptococcus spp. isolates as an antigen candidate in vaccine development, and its efficacy to prevent streptococcosis on tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. J. Ris. Akuakultur. 6(1):103-118.

Wibawan, I.W.T. 2020 Agu 01. Kekebalan diperantai sel. TROBOS. Kata Pakar. [accessed 2021 Jan 31].

Williams, R.C., and R.J. Gibbons. 1972. Inhibition of bacterial adherence by secretory immunoglobulin A: a mechanism of antigen disposal. Science. 177(4050):697–699.

Wold, A.E., and I. Adlerberth. 2000. Breast feeding and the intestinal microflora of the infant–implications for protection against infectious diseases. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 478:77–93.

Zhang, M., H. Geng, M.T. Javed, L. Xu, X. Li, L. Wang, S. Li, and Y. Xu. 2021. Passive protection of Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) against Vibrio harveyi infection using chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY). Aquaculture. 532:736009.

Zhu, Y., S. Thangamani, B. Ho, and J.L. Ding. 2005. The ancient origin of the complement system. EMBO J. 24(2): 382–394.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indexed by:


p-ISSN: 1978-225X e-ISSN: 2502-5600 Copyright© 2007-2021