PHYSICO-CHEMICAL VALUE AND HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL-GRADE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PIGEON PEA (Cajanus cajan) LEAVES AND GINGER (Zingiber officinale var. amarum)

Tutik Wresdiyati, Hamzah Alfarisi, Anisya Saeila Putri, Puri Adzrok Abidah, Made Darawati, Sandra Aziz, Siti Sa’diah, Made Astawan, Koekoeh Santoso

Abstract


This study aimed to analyze flavonoid and 6-gingerol content and to test the hypoglycemic effects of industrial-grade Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) leaf and Zingiber officinale rhizome (ginger) extracts on hyperglycemic rats. Extraction utilized maceration with 70% alcohol at PT. Insular Multi Natural. Extracts were characterized and analyzed for flavonoids and 6-gingerol content. Hypoglycemic activity was assessed using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on rats with induced hyperglycemia via 90% sucrose solution. The results indicated higher flavonoid content in C. cajan leaf extract (4090.09±338.23 mg/100 g) compared to Z. officinale extract (622.74±203.39 mg/100 g), while gingerol content in Z. officinale extract was 701.52±4.42 mg/100 g. This study concluded that combination of industrial-grade pigeon pea leaves extract and ginger extract reduce the level of blood glucose in hyperglycemic model rats at all combination dose (150:150, 200:100, and 100:200 mg/kg BW). The combination dose of 200:100 mg/kg BW showed the best blood glucose level profile.


Keywords


blood glucose; flavonoid; ginger; 6-gingerol; pigeon pea leaves

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alfarisi H, Sa’diah S, Wresdiyati T. 2020. Polyphenol Profile , Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Activity of Acalypha hispida Leaf Extract. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 82(January):291–299.

Alharbi KS, Nadeem MS, Afzal O, Alzarea SI, Altamimi ASA, Almalki WH, Mubeen B, Iftikhar S, Shah L, Kazmi I. 2022. Gingerol, a Natural Antioxidant, Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Downstream Complications. Metabolites, 12(12):1274.

Alkhalidy H, Wang Y, Liu D. 2018. Dietary flavonoids in the prevention of T2D: An overview. Nutrients, 10(4):1–33.

Ariviani S, Affandi DR, Listyaningsih E, Handajani S. 2018. The potential of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) beverage as an anti-diabetic functional drink. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 102(1):0–9.

Ballard C, Roberto M, Junior M. 2019. Bioactive Compounds: Health Benefits and Potential Applications. In Bioactive compounds: health benefits and potential applications. Campos MRS. (editor). Woodhead Publishing, Swaston.

BPOM. 2004. Monografi ekstrak tumbuhan obat indonesia. BPOM RI, Jakarta.

BPOM. 2019. Peraturan Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan Nomor 32 Tahun 2019 tentang Persyaratan Keamanan dan Mutu Obat Tradisional. BPOM RI, Jakarta.

Deng M, Yun X, Ren S, Qing Z, Luo F. 2022. Plants of the Genus Zingiber : A Review of Their. Molecules, 27:2826.

Eid HM, Haddad PS. 2017. The antidiabetic potential of quercetin: Underlying mechanisms. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 24(4):355–364.

El-Noweihi AM, Elmelegy N, Bakar SM, El-Nasser SA. 2020. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of ginger improve kidney function in obese male rats. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 42:19–29.

Fiorenza MP, Maslachah L, Meles DK, Widiyatno T V., Yuliani GA, Ntoruru JM, Luqman EM. 2022. Effect of Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq.) Extract on the Islet Cells’ Number and Blood Glucose Levels of Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rat. International Journal of Drug Delivery Technology, 12(3):1004–1008.

Ge X, He X, Lin Z, Zhu Y, Jiang X, Zhao L, Zeng F, Chen L, Xu W, Liu T, et al. 2022. 6,8-(1,3-Diaminoguanidine) luteolin and its Cr complex show hypoglycemic activities and alter intestinal microbiota composition in type 2 diabetes mice. Food and Function, 13(6):3572–3589.

Giacco F, Brownlee M. 2010. Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Circulation Research, 107(9):1058–1070.

Gulfraz M, Qadir G, Nosheen F, Parveen Z. 2007. Antihyperglycemic Effects of Berberis Lyceum Royle In Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Diabetologia Croatica, 36(3):49–54.

Harborne JB. 1984. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. Ed 7th. Champman and Hall Ltd, New York.

Al Hroob AM, Abukhalil MH, Alghonmeen RD, Mahmoud AM. 2018. Ginger alleviates hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis and protects rats against diabetic nephropathy. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 106(June):381–389.

Ighodaro OM. 2018. Molecular pathways associated with oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 108(September):656–662.

Jayaraman R, Subramani S, Sheik Abdullah SH, Udaiyar M. 2018. Antihyperglycemic effect of hesperetin, a citrus flavonoid, extenuates hyperglycemia and exploring the potential role in antioxidant and antihyperlidemic in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 97:98–106.

Jung JY, Lim Y, Moon MS, Kim JY, Kwon O. 2011. Onion peel extracts ameliorate hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in high fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutrition & Metabolism, 8:1–8.

Kassem IAA, El Awdan SA, Saleh DO. 2021. Characterization of flavonoids and saponins from gleditsia triacanthos by lc-esi/ms/ms analysis: Pharmacological assessment of the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-ulcerogenic activities of g. triacanthos methanolic fruit extract and its n-butanol fraction. Pharmacognosy Journal, 13(3):631–639.

Khandouzi N, Shidfar F, Rajab A, Rahideh T, Hosseinie P, Taher M. 2015. The Effects of Ginger on Fasting Blood Sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 14(1):131–140.

Lee JO, Kim N, Lee HJ, Moon JW, Lee SK, Kim SJ, Kim JK, Park SH, Kim HS. 2015. [6]-Gingerol affects glucose metabolism by dual regulation via the AMPKα2-mediated AS160-rab5 pathway and AMPL-mediated insulin sensitizing effects. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 116(7):1401–1410.

Lee S, Khoo C, Halstead CW, Huynh T, Bensosussan A. 2007. Liquid Chromatographic Determination of 6-, 8-, 10-Gingerol, and 6-Shogaol in Ginger (Zingiber officinale) as the Raw Herb and Dried Aqueous Extract. Journal of AOAC International, 90(5):1219–1226.

Long HP, Liu J, Xu PS, Xu KP, Li J, Tan GS. 2022. Hypoglycemic flavonoids from Selaginella tamariscina (P.Beauv.) Spring. Phytochemistry. 195:113073.

Nam YH, Hong BN, Rodriguez I, Park MS, Jeong SY, Lee YG, Shim JH, Yasmin T, Kim NW, Koo YT, et al. 2020. Steamed ginger may enhance insulin secretion through Katp channel closure in pancreatic β-cells potentially by increasing 1-dehydro-6-gingerdione content. Nutrients. 12(2):1–15.

Nicolle E, Souard F, Faure P, Boumendjel A. 2011. Flavonoids as Promising Lead Compounds in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Molecules of Interest and Structure-Activity Relationship. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 18(17):2661–2672.

Obih PO, Obih J-CA, April B, Day X. 2018. In Vitro Investigations of the Antidiabetic Action of Ginger (Zingiber offcinale). The FASEB Journal, 31(1):lb347–lb347.

Okafor IA, Okafor US. 2022. The methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale causes hypoglycemia and proinflammatory response in rat pancreas. Physiology and Pharmacology, 26(4):433-439.

Pari L, Srinivasan S. 2010. Antihyperglycemic effect of diosmin on hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 64(7):477–481.

Poli V, Aparna Y, Reddy Motireddy S. 2022. 6-Gingerol, New Insights into Its Anti-diabetic Potential with Special Reference to AMPK Pathway: A Review. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 10(10):681–695.

Proença C, Freitas M, Ribeiro D, Oliveira EFT, Sousa JLC, Tomé SM, Ramos MJ, Silva AMS, Fernandes PA, Fernandes E. 2017. α-Glucosidase inhibition by flavonoids: an in vitro and in silico structure–activity relationship study. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, 32(1):1216–1228.

Salih BA. 2021. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Potential of Ginger-Thyme Combined Extract in Sucrose Induced Hyperglycemic Rats. Polytechnic journal, 11(2):109–114.

Samad M Bin, Mohsin MNA Bin, Razu BA, Hossain MT, Mahzabeen S, Unnoor N, Muna IA, Akhter F, Kabir AU, Hannan JMA. 2017. [6]-Gingerol, from Zingiber officinale, potentiates GLP-1 mediated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion pathway in pancreatic β-cells and increases RAB8/RAB10-regulated membrane presentation of GLUT4 transporters in skeletal muscle to improve hyperglycemi. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 17(1):1–13.

Semwal RB, Semwal DK, Combrinck S, Viljoen AM. 2015. Gingerols and shogaols: Important nutraceutical principles from ginger. Phytochemistry. 117:554–568.

Shaikhomar OA, Bahattab OS. 2021. Physiological Effect of Quercetin as a Natural Flavonoid to be used as Hypoglycemic Agent in Diabetes Mellitus Type II Rats. Saudi Journal of Biomedical Research, 6(1):10–17.

Sharma B, Balomajumder C, Roy P. 2008. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of flavonoid rich extract from Eugenia jambolana seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(7):2376–2383.

Siregar RS, Hadiguna RA, Kamil I, Nazir N, Nofialdi N. 2022. Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) as a Potent Medicinal Plant for the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: A Review. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research, 6(4):462–469.

Son MJ, Miura Y, Yagasaki K. 2015. Mechanisms for antidiabetic effect of gingerol in cultured cells and obese diabetic model mice. Cytotechnology, 67(4):641–652.

Sukalingama K, Ganesana K, Ganib SB. 2013. Hypoglycemic Effect of 6-Gingerol, an Active Principle of Ginger in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. Research & Reviews: Pharmacology and Toxicological Studies, 1(2):33–37.

Talebi Marjan, Mohammadi Vadoud SA, Haratian A, Talebi Mohsen, Farkhondeh T, Pourbagher-Shahri AM, Samarghandian S. 2022. The interplay between oxidative stress and autophagy: focus on the development of neurological diseases. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 18(1):1–22.

Wang K, Kong L, Wen X, Li M, Su S, Ni Y, Gu J. 2023. The Positive Effect of 6-Gingerol on High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Prediabetic Mice: Potential Pathways and Underlying Mechanisms. Nutrients, 15(824):1–16.

Wang Z, Thurmond DC. 2009. Mechanisms of biphasic insulin-granule exocytosis - Roles of the cytoskeleton, small GTPases and SNARE proteins. Journal of Cell Science, 122(7):893–903.

WHO. 2000. General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine World Health Organization. WHO, Geneva.

WHO. 2016. Global Report on Diabetes. WHO, Frence.

Wresdiyati T, Astawan M, Muchtadi D, Nurdiana Y. 2007. Antioxidant Acitivity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oleorisin on The Profile of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) in The Kidney of Rats Under Stress Conditions. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan, 18:118–125.

Wresdiyati T, Iskandar DC, Sa’diah S, Astawan M. 2020. In Vitro and In Vivo Hypoglycaemic Activity Test of Indonesian Cajanus cajan Leaves and Zingiber officinale Extracts. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences, 16(3):13–14.

Wresdiyati T, Ketut I, Adnyane M, Renny D, Prasetyawati C. 2005. The Utilization of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Oleoresin to Recover Impairment of Intracelluler Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) On the Liver of Rats Under Stress Condition. Biota, 10(2):120–128.

Wresdiyati T, Sa’diah S, Winarto A, Febriyani V. 2015. Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibition and Hypoglycemic Activities of Sweitenia mahagoni Seed Extract. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 22(2):73–78.

Yanto AR, Mahmudati N, Susetyarini RE. 2016. Steeping of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosce) lowers blood glucose in rat model type-2 diabetes (NIDDM) as a learning resource biology. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia, 2(3):258–264.

Yen FS, Qin CS, Xuan STS, Puah JY, Le HY, Darmarajan T, Gunasekaran B, Salvamani S. 2021. Hypoglycemic Effects of Plant Flavonoids: A Review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2021:1–12.

Yin Z, Zhang W, Feng F, Zhang Y, Kang W. 2014. α-Glucosidase inhibitors isolated from medicinal plants. Food Science and Human Wellness, 3(3–4):136–174.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.21157/j.ked.hewan.v18i1.31691

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Indexed by:

           
  

p-ISSN: 1978-225X e-ISSN: 2502-5600 Copyright© 2007-2021