Variations in the use of personal pronoun agreement in Acehnese: A sociolinguistic approach

Armia Armia, Denni Iskandar, Cut Zuriana, Nurrahmah Nurrahmah


This study aims to identify variations in the use of personal pronoun agreements in the Acehnese language based on a sociolinguistic approach, by focusing on the North Aceh dialect. A descriptive-qualitative method was used and data were collected through interviews. These interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the sociolinguistic approach by structure and semantics. The results of the study showed that the personal pronouns of the Acehnese language are influenced by social factors such as age, social status, and familiarity. In the context of the age factor, there are variations in the use of personal pronoun agreements related to communication patterns between the younger and older generations. In social interactions with differences in social status, the use of personal pronoun agreements that reflect respect and recognition of social status is more dominant. Meanwhile, in familiarity, the use of more formal or informal personal pronouns depends on the degree of familiarity between the speakers. Overall, variations in the use of agreement personal pronouns in the Acehnese language are influenced by sociolinguistic factors that reflect social dynamics, cultural norms, and relationships between individuals. Understanding these variations can provide better insight into social interactions, social hierarchies, and familiarity norms in Acehnese society.


Acehnese; agreement; personal pronoun; sociolinguistics

Full Text:



Ackerman, L. (2019). Syntactic and cognitive issues in investigating gendered coreference. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics, 4(1), 1-27.

Alwi, H., Dardjowidjojo, S., Lapoliwa, H., & Moeliono, A. M. (2003). Tata bahasa baku Bahasa Indonesia [Indonesian grammar]. Balai Pustaka.

Arnold, J. E., Mayo, H. C., & Dong, L. (2021). My pronouns are they/them: Talking about pronouns changes how pronouns are understood. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 28(5), 1688-1697.

Aziz, Z. A., Yusuf, Y. Q., Burhansyah, B., & Muzammil, M. (2020). To say or not to say? Construing contextual taboo words used by Acehnese speakers in Indonesia. Journal of Ethnology and Folkloristics, 14(2), 83-98.

Azwardi. (2014). Penggolong “boh” dalam Bahasa Aceh [The classifier of “boh” in the Acehnese Language]. Majalah Ilmiah Ilmu - Ilmu Humaniora Mentari 17(1), 100-119.

Bright, W. (2017). Social factors in language change. In F. Coulmas (Ed.), The handbook of sociolinguistics (pp. 81-91). Wiley.

Chaer, A., & Liliana, M. (2005). Materi pokok semantik Bahasa Indonesia [Main material of Indonesian semantics]. Universitas Terbuka.

Chambers, J. K., & Schilling, N. (2018). The handbook of language variation and change. John Wiley & Sons.

Coupland, N. (2007). Style: Language variation and identity. Cambridge University Press.

Cysouw, M. (2009). The paradigmatic structure of person marking. Oxford University Press.

Dawood, A. S. (2010). The correspondence between determiners and pronouns. Journal of University of Babylon, 18(3), 745-761.

Dilfuza, S. (2022). Forms of pronouns. Eurasian Journal of Learning and Academic Teaching, 12, 23-26.

Djunaidi, A. (2004). Persesuaian dalam Bahasa Aceh [Agreement in Acehnese language]. Jurnal Bahasa dan Seni, 32(2), 139-163.

Ghina, I., & Helmi, R. (2023. Acehnese and English subject-predicate concord: A contrastive analysis. Journal of English Teaching and Linguistics, 4(1), 57-64.

Hanifah, N., Salsabila, A. H., & Nuryani. (2023). Variasi bahasa pada masyarakat tutur Kota Jakarta Selatan [Language variations in the speech community of South Jakarta]. Diglossia: Jurnal Kajian Ilmiah Kebahasaan dan Kesusastraan, 14(2), 82-88.

Hazen, K. (2002). Identity and language variation in a rural community. Language, 78(2), 240-257.

Íñigo-Mora, I. (2004). On the use of the personal pronoun we in communities. Journal of Language and Politics, 3(1), 27-52.

Iqbal, M., Ramli, Razali, Idham, M., & Safhida, M. (2022). The Acehnese language morphology. In Z. A. Aziz., Y. Q. Yusuf, S. S. Firtriani, & D. Fitrisia (Eds.), The Acehnese language and society: Language and linguistics (pp. 41-71). Syiah Kuala University Press.

Iskandar, D., & Samad, I. A. (2018). Morphosyntax analysis of Acehnese clitic. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 9(4), 212-219.

Jakfar, M. (2010). Pronomina persona Bahasa Aceh dan persesuaiannya [Acehnese language personal pronouns and their agreement]. Jurnal Variasi, 2(5), 70-74.

Kim, H., Sefcik, J. S., & Bradway, C. (2017) Characteristics of qualitative descriptive studies: A systematic review. Research in Nursing & Health, 40, 23–42.

Kojima, Y. (2019). The development of person agreement and the cliticization of personal pronouns in Batsbi. STUF-Language Typology and Universals, 72(2), 275-296.

Milicia, S. (2019). First-person pronouns in Japanese language: From normative explanations to actual usage [Master’s thesis, Universitetet I Oslo].

Millán, M. (2011). Pronouns of address in informal context: A comparison of two dialects of Colombian Spanish [Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois].

Moravcsik, E. A. (2012). Introducing language typology. Cambridge University Press.

Müller, A., & Weymuth, R. (2017). How society shapes language: Personal pronouns in the Greater Burma Zone. Asiatische Studien/Études Asiatiques, 71(1), 409-432.

Muswazi, M. T., & Nhamo, E. (2013). Note taking: A lesson for novice qualitative researchers. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education, 2(3), 13-17.

Muthalib, K. A., Rahmah, S., & Aziz, Z. A. (2022). Acehnese lexical and grammatical collocations of North Aceh dialect. Studies in English Language and Education, 9(2), 832-850.

Nasution, J., Pujiono, M., & Iqbal, M. (2023). Verbal taboos in Acehnese language: Meaning, function, and euphemism. Randwick International of Education and Linguistics Science Journal, 4(1), 58-70.

Oshodi, B., & Adekeye, B. F. (2021). Pronouns in Arigidi: A syntactic analysis. Linguistic Discovery, 17(1), 1-12.

Puspita, D., & Suprayogi, S. (2021). Language use variation of L2 writers in weblog across different gender and genres. Rainbow: Journal of Literature, Linguistics and Culture Studies, 10(2), 126-134.

Rahardi, K. (2020). Konteks pragmatik dalam perspektif cyberpragmatics [Pragmatic context in a cyberpragmatics perspective]. Linguistik Indonesia, 38(2), 151-163.

Romaine, S. (2000). Language in society: An introduction to sociolinguistics. Oxford University Press.

Ruriana, P. (2019). Pronomina persona dan bentuk-bentuk lain pengganti pronomina persona dalam Bahasa Blambangan [Personal pronoun and other forms of personal pronoun in the Blambangan language]. Metalingua: Jurnal Penelitian Bahasa, 16(2), 231-246.

Sastrawan, I. G. A. (2022). Variasi pronomina penutur Bahasa Bali dalam film pendek Budaya Nyatuang Tresna [Variations of Balinese speaking pronouns in the short film Nyatuang Tresna Culture]. Prasi: Jurnal Bahasa, Seni, dan Pengajarannya, 17(1), 77-88.

Simon, H. J., & Wiese, H. (Eds.). (2002). Pronouns–Grammar and representation. John Benjamins.

Song, K.-A., & Heine, B. (2017). Some patterns of grammatical change in personal pronouns. The Linguistic Association of Korea Journal, 25(1), 139-162.

Spolsky, B. (2010). Sociolinguistics. Oxford University Press.

Syamsi, V., Kurniawati, E., Soepriyatna, & Pangaribuan, C. H. (2022). Identity construction through language use (A case study of Jakartanese personal pronoun). International Journal of Current Science Research and Review, 5(7), 2672-2680.

Taib, R., & Mulyadi. (2022). The interjection of ômma in the Acehnese language: A natural semantic metalanguage approach. Studies in English Language and Education, 9(3), 1315-1328.

Velupillai, V. (2012). An introduction to linguistic typology. Johns Benjamins Publishing Company.

Weerman, F., & Evers-Vermeul, J. (2002). Pronouns and case. Lingua, 112(4), 301-338.

Yusuf, Y. Q., Nasir, C., & Andib, N. (2019). Power and solidarity: The pronoun of address ke [ke] used in Indonesian by Acehnese speakers. International Journal of Language Studies, 13(1), 77-98.

Zikra, Z., Mahmud, S., & Azwardi, A. (2016). Abreviasi dalam Bahasa Aceh [Abbreviation in Acehnese]. JIM Pendididikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia, 1(3), 100-109.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View Journal Stats