Haematological effect of chlorfenapyr-exposed freshwater African mud catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

Imeh K. Esenowo, Maureen N. Chukwu, Akwaowo U. Nelson, Chibuisi G. Alimba, Micheal Johnson, Mmandu U. Effiong, Akaninyene U. Akpan, Adiaha A.A. Ugwumba, Nsima I. Udoidung, Nsikakabasi C. Ukpong, Alex O. Ugwumba, Efe Ogidiaka, Adeyemi O.A. Ale, Godsgift Sunday


The effects of chlorfenapyr pesticide were investigated on juvenile of Clarias gariepinus. Sub-lethal test was carried out using 5, 7, 9, 11 and 15 mgL-1 of chlorfenapyr pesticide for 96 hours, and peripheral blood was collected through the caudal vein and examined for haematological changes. There was significant reduction (P<0.05) in WBC when compared to the control. RBC increase was directly proportional to increase in chlorfenapyr dose and significantly differed from control (p<0.05). HGB increased in a dose-dependent manner. MCV values of all treatment groups, except 15 mgL-1, were higher when compared to control. MCH was not significantly different from control. PLT decreased with increase in concentration and was lower for all treatment when compared with control. Results obtained in this study suggest that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorfenapyr can alter the haematological indices of non-target organisms.

Full Text:



in Oreochromis niloticus juveniles exposed to butachlor. Journal of Agriculture and Food Technology, 1(6):73–80.

Ada, F. B., E. O. Ayotunde, E. Ekpenyong. 2013. Eco-economic assessment of rice culture using pisces as alternative method of weed control in Southern Cross River State, Nigeria. AAB Bioflux, 5(2): 66–76.

Ada, F. B., E. O. Ayotunde, P. R. B. Bayim. 2012. Some biological and haematological responses of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles exposed to Atrazine herbicide. AACL Bioflux, 5(5): 369–379.

Adedeji O. B., A. O. Adedeji, O. K. Adeyemo, S. A. Agbede. 2008. Acute toxicity of diazinon to the African Catfish. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(5):651 – 654.

Adeniyi, O.V., F.E. Olaifa, B.O. Emikpe, S.T. Ogunbanwo. 2021. Effects of Tamarindus indica (Linnaeus 1753) pulp-fortified diets on the gut microflora and morphometry in African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822). Aceh Journal of Animal Science, 6 (2): 45 – 51.

Aderolu, A. Z., M. O. Lawal, L. I. Okoronkwo, F. Olubajo Awobajo, F. I. Jesuniyi. 2017. Dietary effect of Cissus populnea and Securidaca longepedunculata aqueous leave extracts on reproductive, haematological and biochemical parameters of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) broodstocks. Aceh Journal of Animal Science (2017) 2(1): 1-11

Adewunmi, B., O. E. Germaine, O. C. Akingusola. 2018. Effect of sublethal toxicity of chlorpyrios and DDforce pesticides on haematological parameters of Clarias gariepinus. International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health, 5(5):62 - 71.

Adeyemo, K. O. 2007. Haematological profile of Clarias gariepinus exposed to lead. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 7:163 - 169.

Affonso, E. G., V. L. P. Polez, C. F. Correa, A. F. Mazon, M. R. R. Araujo, G. Moraes, F. T. Rantin. 2002. Blood parameters and metabolites in the teleost fish Colossoma macropomum exposed to sulfide or hypoxia. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C. Toxicology and Pharmacology, 133 (3): 375–382.

Alimba C. G., A. W. Laide. 2019. Genotoxic and cytotoxic assessment of individual and composite mixture of cadmium, lead and manganese in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) using micronucleus assay. Nucleus, 62:191–202.

Alimba, C. G., K. O. Adekoya, O. O. Soyinka. 2019. Exposure to effluent from pharmaceutical industry induced cytogenotoxicity, hematological and histopathological alterations in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Experimental and Clinical Sciences (EXCLI) Journal, 18: 63–78.

Anand-Kumar, A. 1994. Endosulfan induced biochemical and pathophysiological changes in freshwater fish, Clarias batrachus. Ph.D. Thesis, Osmania University, Hyderabad, A.P., India.

Auta, J., E. O. Ogueji. 2008. Acute toxicity and behavioural effect of chlorpyrifos ethyl pesticide to juveniles of C. gariepinus Teugel. 22nd Annual Conference of the Fisheries Society of Nigeria (FISON) held at Kebbi, Nigeria from 12th – 16th Nov. 2007, 264-272 pages

Bala, B., E. T. Azua, T. J. Akaahan. 2019. Haematological studies of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) exposed to sublethal concentrations of atrazine. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 7(3): 256-260.

Berner, L. 1994. A chronic dietary and oncogenicity study with AC 308,630 in mice. Toxicology Journal, 3(5):7 - 11.

Black, B. C., R. M. Hollingworth, K. I. Ahmmadsahib, C. D. Kukel, S. Donovan. 1994. Insecticidal action and mitochondrial uncoupling activity of AC-303,630 and related halogenated pyrroles. Pesticide Biochemistry Physiology, 50 (2):115-128.

Blaxhall, P.C., K. W. Daisley. 1973. Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood. Journal of Fish Biology, 5: 771-781.

Brown, B. A. 1980. Haematological principles and procedures (3rd Ed) Lee AZ Publishers. 405pages

Cameron, J. N. 1970. The influence of environmental variables on the haematology of pinfish, Lagodon rhomboids and stripped mullet Mugil cephalus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 32: 175-192.

Che, W., T. Shi, Y. Wu, Y. Yang. 2013. Insecticide resistance status of field populations of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from China. Journal of Economic Entomology, 106 (4):1855–1862.

Conceicao L. E. C., Y. Dersjant-Li, J. A. J. Verreth. 1998. Cost of growth in larval and juvenile African catfsh (Clarias gariepinus) in relation to growth rate, food intake and oxygen consumption. Aquaculture, 161: 95–106.

Dacie, J. V., S. N. Lewis. 1991. Practical Haematology. 7th Edition. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburg, 54-79.

Esenowo, I. K., A. U. Nelson, C. G. Alimba, N. D. Ekpo, O. C. Emmanuel. 2021. Genotoxicity evaluation of Chlorfenapyr in exposed freshwater African catfish Clarias gariepinus using micronucleus test. Aceh Journal of Animal Science, 6 (1): 7-12

Gabriel, U. U., A. P. Ugbomeh. 2016. Effects of cypermethrin on haematological parameters of African freshwater catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Journal of Aquatic Science, 31(2B): 433-442.

Ghayyur S., M. F. Khan, S. Tabassum, M. S. Ahmad, M. Sajid, K. Badshah, Khan M. A., Saira, Ghayyur S., Khan N. A., Ahmad B., Qamer S. (2021). A comparative study on the effects of selected pesticides on hemato-biochemistry and tissue histology of freshwater fish Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28 (1): 603–611.

Gunning, R. V., G. D. Moores. 2002. Chlorfenapyr resistance in Helicoverpa armigera in Australia. In The BCPC Conference: Pests and diseases, Volums 1 and 2. Proceedings of tan international conference held at the Brighton Hilton Metropole Hotel, Brighton, UK 18-21 November 2002, pp 793-798. British Crop Protection Council

Hedayati, S.A., H. G. Farsani, S. S. Naserabad, S. H. Hoseinifar, H. Van Doan. 2019. Protective effect of dietary vitamin E on immunological and biochemical induction through silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inclusion in diet and silver salt (AgNO3) exposure on Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, 222: 100–107.

Helfrich, L. A., D. L. Weigmann, P. A. Hipkins, E. R. Stinson 2009. Pesticides and aquatic animals: a guide to reducing impacts on aquatic systems.

Ingham, L., U. Audoer, T. Victor. 2012. The Chlorfenapyr, Biology of Insecticides, 20: 131-136

Jenkins, F., J. Smith, B. Rajanna, U. Shameem, K. Umadevi, V. Sandhya and R. Madhavi, 2003. Effect of sub-lethal concentrations of endosulfan on hematological and serum biochemical parameters in the carp. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 70: 993‒997.

Joshi, S.C., R. Mathur, A. Gajraj, T. Sharma. 2003. Influence of methyl parathion on reproductive parameters in male rats. Environ. Toxicology and Pharmacology, 14 (3): 91–98.

Marimuthu, K., H. Palaniandy, Z. A. Muchlisin. 2019. Effect of different water pH on hatching and survival rates of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Pisces: Clariidae). Aceh Journal of Animal Science, 4(2): 80-88.

Mazon, A. F., E. A. S. Monteiro, G. H. D. Pinheiro, M. N. Fernandes. 2002. Hematological and physiological changes induced by short-term exposure to copper in the freshwater fish Prochilodus scrofa. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 62: 621–631.

Mirale, J. B. 1982. Laboratory Medicine Haematological. 6th Edition. The CV Mosby Publishing London 1084 pages.

Mosha, F. W., I. N. Lyimo, R. M. Oxborough, R. Malima, F. Tenu, J. Matowo. 2008. Experimental hut evaluation of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr on bed nets for the control of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 13(5): 644–652.

Moura, M. A. F., M. I. S. Oliveira, A. L. Val. 1997. Effects of hypoxia on leucocytes of two Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum and Hoplosternum littorale. Rev. UA. Ser. Ciencias Biology, 1:13–22.

Nwani, C. D., P. C. Echi, 2013. Investigation on acute toxicity and behavioural changes in a freshwater African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) exposed to organophosphorus pesticides, Termifos. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 45(4):959 - 965.

Oh, H. S., S. K. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. K Roh. 1991. Mechanism of selective toxicity of diazinon to killfish (Oryzias latipes) and loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) ASTM Special Technical Publication, 1124: 343-353

Olateju, A. I. 2019. Impact of pollution on haematology and histology of juveniles of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus in Ogbese River, Ondo State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, 3(3):1-12.

Oost, R. V., J. Beyer, N. P. Vermeulen. 2003. Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 13 (2): 57–149.

Osman, A.G., K. Y. AbouelFadl, M. Abd El Baset, U. M. Mahmoud, W. Kloas, M. A. Moustafa, 2018. Blood Biomarkers in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and African Catfish Clarias gariepinus to evaluate water quality of the River Nile. Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 12 (1) : 1–15

Pakanit, K., W. Kinchareon. 2011. Hematological and biochemical responses of the Flowerhorn fish to hypoxia. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 10 (20): 2631–2638.

Pandey, K.. 2005. Fish and Fisheries. Rastogi Publications, Meerut.

Pawar, P. V., M. P. Bhilave. 2019. Effect of insecticide Chlorantraniliprole on hematological profile of fingerlings of freshwater fish Cirrhinus mrigala. International Journal of Research Analytical Reviews, 6(1): 982–989.

Raghavendra, K., T. K. Barik, P. Sharma, R. M.. Bhatt, H. C. Srivastava, U. Sreehari, A. P. Dash. 2011. Chlorfenapyr: A new insecticide with novel mode of action can control pyrethoid resistant malaria vectors. Malaria Journal, 10 (1):1-7.

Sahan, A., T. Altun, F. Cevik, I. Cengizler, E. Nevsat, G. E. N. C. Ercument. 2007. Comparative study of some haematological parameters in European eel (Anguilla anguilla L. 1758) caught from different regions of Ceyhan river (Adana, Turkey). Ege Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Science, 24 (1): 167 –171.

Seriani R., J. G. Franca, J. V. Lombardi, J. M. Brito, M. J. T. Ranzani-Paiva. 2015. Hematological changes and cytogenotoxicity in the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus caused by sub-chronic exposures to mercury and selenium. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 4(1):311–322.

Seth, N., K. K. Saxena, 2003. Hematological responses in a freshwater fish Channa punctatus due to fenvalerate. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 71: 1192-1199.

Soivio A., A. Oikari. 2006. Haematological effects of stress on a teleost Esox Indus L. Journal of Fish Biology, 8: 397 - 411.

Tawatsin, A., U. Thawara, J. Chompoosri, Y. Phusup, N. Joajang, C. Khumsawads, P. Bhakdeenuan, P. Sawanpanyalert, P. Asavadachanukorn, M. S. Mulla, P. Siriyasatien, 2011. Insecticide resistance in bedbugs in Thailand and laboratory evaluation of insecticides for the control of Cimex hemipterus and Cimex lectularinus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 48(5):1023 - 1030.

Wedemeyer, G.A., W. T. Yasutake. 1977. Clinical methods for the assessment of the effects of environmental stress on fish health (Vol 89). Department of the Interior. Fish and Wildlife Service, USA.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.13170/ajas.8.1.21296


  • There are currently no refbacks.



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - 4.0 International Public  License (CC - BY  4.0).