Hanifah Yusuf, Marhami Fahriani, Cut Murzalina


This study aimed to evaluate anticancer activity and apoptosis induction of ethanolic extract of Arcalengisia flava (AF) roots on HepG2 cancer cell lines. The AF roots were extracted by maceration using ethanol 80%. MTT assay method was used to evaluate the anticancer activity and the proliferation of HepG2 cells. Flow cytometry method was used to assess the induction of HepG2 cells apoptosis. This study showed that the IC50 of AF ethanol extract against HepG2 cells was 109.14 μg/ml. With IC50 treatment, the apoptosis assay showed a significant decrease in intact cells (80.10±1.7%) and a significant increase in early apoptosis (7.9±0.7%) and late apoptosis cells of HepG2 cancer cells (4.9±0.35%) compared to control cells. Moreover, the proliferation of HepG2 cells was declined significantly in 48 and 72 hours after treatment with IC50 (77.5±5.76% and 64.3±5.37%, respectively) and 2xIC50 of the extract (75.9±1.79% and 70.5±4.27%, respectively). This research suggests that the ethanolic extract of AF roots can potentially be used for hepatocarcinoma treatment.


anticancer activity, Arcalengisia flava, cancer cell lines, hepatocarcinoma, HepG2

Full Text:



AHMADIANKIA, N., MOGHADDAM, H. K., MISHAN, M. A., BAHRAMI, A. R., NADERI-MESHKIN, H., BIDKHORI, H. R., MOGHADDAM, M. & MIRFEYZI, S. J. A. 2016. Berberine suppresses migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through down-regulation of chemokine receptors. Iranian journal of basic medical sciences, 19, 125.

BALOGH, J., VICTOR, D., 3RD, ASHAM, E. H., BURROUGHS, S. G., BOKTOUR, M., SAHARIA, A., LI, X., GHOBRIAL, R. M. & MONSOUR, H. P., JR. 2016. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a review. Journal of hepatocellular carcinoma, 3, 41-53.

BHADRA, K. & KUMAR, G. S. 2011. Therapeutic potential of nucleic acid-binding isoquinoline alkaloids: Binding aspects and implications for drug design. Medicinal Research Reviews, 31, 821-862.

CAI, Y., XIA, Q., LUO, R., HUANG, P., SUN, Y., SHI, Y. & JIANG, W. 2014. Berberine inhibits the growth of human colorectal adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Natural Medicines, 68, 53-62.

CCRC 2014. Sample Preparation for Flowcytometry Assay. Yogyakarta: Department of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University.


Palmatine suppresses glutamine-mediated interaction between pancreatic cancer and stellate cells through simultaneous inhibition of survivin and COL1A1. Cancer letters, 419, 103-115.

GRABARSKA, A., WRÓBLEWSKA-ŁUCZKA, P., KUKULA-KOCH, W., ŁUSZCZKI, J., KALPOUTZAKIS, E., ADAMCZUK, G., SKALTSOUNIS, A. & STEPULAK, A. 2021. Palmatine, a Bioactive Protoberberine Alkaloid Isolated from Berberis cretica, Inhibits the Growth of Human Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Cells and Acts Synergistically and Additively with Doxorubicin. Molecules, 26, 6253.

HERYANI, H. & NUGROHO, A. 2015. Study of Yellow Root (Arcangelisia Flava Merr) as a Natural Food Additive with Antimicrobial and Acidity-stabilizing Effects in the Production Process of Palm Sugar. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 23, 346-350.

JEONG, Y., YOU, D., KANG, H.-G., YU, J., KIM, S. W., NAM, S. J., LEE, J. E. & KIM, S. 2018. Berberine suppresses fibronectin expression through inhibition of c-Jun phosphorylation in breast cancer cells. Journal of breast cancer, 21, 21-27.

KIM, S., LEE, J., YOU, D., JEONG, Y., JEON, M., YU, J., KIM, S. W., NAM, S. J. & LEE, J. E. 2018. Berberine suppresses cell motility through downregulation of TGF-β1 in triple negative breast cancer cells. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, 45, 795-807.

LE GRAZIE, M., BIAGINI, M. R., TAROCCHI, M., POLVANI, S. & GALLI, A. 2017. Chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: The present and the future. World journal of hepatology, 9, 907-920.

LLOVET, J. M., KELLEY, R. K., VILLANUEVA, A., SINGAL, A. G., PIKARSKY, E., ROAYAIE, S., LENCIONI, R., KOIKE, K., ZUCMAN-ROSSI, J. & FINN, R. S. 2021. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 7, 6.

LOHITESH, K., CHOWDHURY, R. & MUKHERJEE, S. 2018. Resistance a major hindrance to chemotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma: an insight. Cancer cell international, 18, 44-44.

MA, G., WANG, C., LV, B., JIANG, Y. & WANG, L. 2019. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 enhances Bcl2-like protein-12 expression in lung cancer cells to suppress p53 expression. Archives of Medical Science, 15, 1147-1153.

MA, W., ZHU, M., ZHANG, D., YANG, L., YANG, T., LI, X. & ZHANG, Y. 2017. Berberine inhibits the proliferation and migration of breast cancer ZR-75-30 cells by targeting Ephrin-B2. Phytomedicine, 25, 45-51.

MUTIAH, R., KIRANA, F. O., ANNISA, R., RAHMAWATI, A. & SANDRA, F. 2020. Extract of Yellow Root (Arcangelisia Flava (L.) Merr.) from Several Regions in Kalimantan: Alkaloid Content and Cytotoxicity towards WiDr Colorectal Cancer Cells. Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, 11, 84-89.

NIWAT, K., DEJ-ADISAI, S. & YUENYONGSAWAD, S. 2005. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Thai medicinal plants named Khaminkhruea: Arcangelisia flava, Coscinium blumeanum and Fibraurea tinctoria. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 27.

NKPAA, K. W., AWOGBINDIN, I. O., AMADI, B. A., ABOLAJI, A. O., ADEDARA, I. A., WEGWU, M. O. & FAROMBI, E. O. 2019. Ethanol Exacerbates Manganese-Induced Neurobehavioral Deficits, Striatal Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis Via Regulation of p53, Caspase-3, and Bax/Bcl-2 Ratio-Dependent Pathway. Biological Trace Element Research, 191, 135-148.

PAN, Y., ZHANG, F., ZHAO, Y., SHAO, D., ZHENG, X., CHEN, Y., HE, K., LI, J. & CHEN, L. 2017. Berberine enhances chemosensitivity and induces apoptosis through dose-orchestrated AMPK signaling in breast cancer. Journal of Cancer, 8, 1679.

PRATAMA, M. R. F. 2016. [Akar Kuning (Arcangelisia Flava) Sebagai Inhibitor EGFR: Kajian in Silico](Akar Kuning (Arcangelisia Flava) As EGFR Inhibitor: In Silico Study). Akar Kuning (Arcangelisia Flava) As EGFR Inhibitor: In Silico Study)(February 1, 2016). Jurnal Farmagazine, 3.

SAKAGUCHI, M., KITAGUCHI, D., MORINAMI, S., KURASHIKI, Y., HASHIDA, H., MIYATA, S., YAMAGUCHI, M., SAKAI, M., MURATA, N. & TANAKA, S. 2020. Berberine-induced nucleolar stress response in a human breast cancer cell line. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 528, 227-233.

SERAFIM, T. L., OLIVEIRA, P. J., SARDAO, V. A., PERKINS, E., PARKE, D. & HOLY, J. 2008. Different concentrations of berberine result in distinct cellular localization patterns and cell cycle effects in a melanoma cell line. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 61, 1007-1018.

SHUKLA, S., SHARMA, A., PANDEY, V. K., RAISUDDIN, S. & KAKKAR, P. 2016. Concurrent acetylation of FoxO1/3a and p53 due to sirtuins inhibition elicit Bim/PUMA mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in berberine-treated HepG2 cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 291, 70-83.

SIEGEL, R. L., MILLER, K. D., FUCHS, H. E. & JEMAL, A. 2021. Cancer Statistics, 2021. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 71, 7-33.

SUN, Y., XUN, K., WANG, Y. & CHEN, X. 2009. A systematic review of the anticancer properties of berberine, a natural product from Chinese herbs. Anticancer Drugs, 20, 757-769.

WANG, K., ZHANG, C., BAO, J., JIA, X., LIANG, Y., WANG, X., CHEN, M., SU, H., LI, P., WAN, J.-B. & HE, C. 2016. Synergistic chemopreventive effects of curcumin and berberine on human breast cancer cells through induction of apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Scientific reports, 6, 26064-26064.

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION 2017. Global hepatitis report 2017, World Health Organization.

YU, R., ZHANG, Z.-Q., WANG, B., JIANG, H.-X., CHENG, L. & SHEN, L.-M. 2014. Berberine-induced apoptotic and autophagic death of HepG2 cells requires AMPK activation. Cancer Cell International, 14, 49.

YUSUF, H., SATRIA, D., SURYAWATI, S. & FAHRIANI, M. 2020. Combination therapy of eurycomanone and doxorubicin as anticancer on T47D and MCF-7 Cell Lines. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11, 335-341.

ZHANG, C., SHENG, J., LI, G., ZHAO, L., WANG, Y., YANG, W., YAO, X., SUN, L., ZHANG, Z. & CUI, R. 2020. Effects of Berberine and Its Derivatives on Cancer: A Systems Pharmacology Review. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 10.

ZHAO, Y., JING, Z., LV, J., ZHANG, Z., LIN, J., CAO, X., ZHAO, Z., LIU, P. & MAO, W. 2017. Berberine activates caspase-9/cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis to suppress triple-negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 95, 18-24.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 by author and J. Kedokt. Hewan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed by:


p-ISSN: 1978-225X e-ISSN: 2502-5600 Copyright© 2007-2021