Risza Hartawan, Ni Luh Putu Indi Dharmayanti


The objective of this study was to identify the five different viral infections including avian influenza, Newcastle disease, avian reovirus, avian encephalomyelitis, and Marek’s disease in the runting-stunting syndrome outbreak in several commercial layer farms in Sukabumi and Tangerang in November 2014 using polymerase chain reaction technique. As results, this study identified mix infection of three viruses in the field samples, including Newcastle disease, reovirus, and avian encephalomyelitis; however, it was negative for avian influenza and Marek’s disease viruses. Subsequently, the inoculation of several samples into embryonated chicken eggs confirmed the growth of these three viruses. As a consequence, disease control management should be conducted in the affected farms by implementing effective biosecurity and vaccination program.


layer, runting stunting syndrome, Sukabumi, Tangerang, viral infection

Full Text:



Alexander, D.J. and R.C. Jones. 2008. Paramyxoviridae. In: Poultry Diseases. Mark, P., F.M. Paul, M.B. Janet, J.A. Dennis (Eds.). 6th ed. . WB Saunders, Edinburgh.

Asasi, K., A. Farzinpour, and A.K. Tafti. 2008. Clinico-pathological studies on avian encephalomyelitis in Shiraz, Iran. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 32:229-231.

Bányai, K., E. Dandár, K.M. Dorsey, T. Mató, and V. Palya. 2011. The genomic constellation of a novel avian orthoreovirus strain associated with runting-stunting syndrome in broilers. Virus Genes. 42:82-89.

Dharmayanti, N.L.P.I., R. Hartawan, D.A. Hewajuli, and R. Indriani. 2014. Phylogenetic analysis of genotype VII of new castle disease virus in Indonesia. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 18: 1368-1374.

Goldenberg, D., A. Lublin, E. Rosenbluth, E.D. Heller, and J. Pitcovski. 2011. Differentiating infected from vaccinated animals, and among virulent prototypes of reovirus. J. Virol. Methods. 177:80-86.

Goodwin, M.A., J.F. Davis, MS McNulty, J. Brown, and E.C. Player. 1993. Enteritis (so-called runting stunting syndrome) in Georgia broiler chicks. Avian Dis. 37:451-458.

Guy, J.S. 1998. Virus infections of the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Poult. Sci. 77:1166-1175.

Islam, A., B.F. Cheetham, T.J. Mahony, P.L. Young, and S.W. Walkden-Brown. 2006. Absolute quantitation of Marek’s disease virus and herpesvirus of turkeys in chicken lymphocyte, feather tip and dust samples using real-time PCR. J. Virol. Methods. 132:127-134.

Jones, R.C. 2008. Reovirus infections. In: Diseases of Poultry. Saif, Y.M., A.M. Fadly, J.R. Glisson, L.R. McDougald, L.K. Nolan, and D.E. Swayne (Eds.). 12th ed. Blackwell Publising, Iowa.

Kang, K.-L., M. El-Gazzar, H.S. Sellers, F. Dorea, S.M. Williams, T. Kim, S. Collett, and E. Mundt. 2012. Investigation into the aetiology of runting and stunting syndrome in chickens. Avian Pathol. 41:41-50.

Ke, G.M., H.L. Cheng, L.Y. Ke, W.T. Ji, J.L.C Chulu, M.H. Liao, T.J. Chang, and H.J. Liu. 2006. Development of a quantitative Light Cycler real-time RT-PCR for detection of avian reovirus. J. Virol. Methods. 133:6-13.

Lee, M.S., P.C. Chang, J.H. Shien, M.C. Cheng, and H.K. Shieh. 2001. Identification and subtyping of avian influenza viruses by reverse transcription-PCR. J. Virol. Methods. 97:13-22.

Maide, M.S., S. Hardjoutomo, and A. Makmur. 1972. Encephalomyelitis infectiosa avium pada anak ayam di Indonesia. Bulletin L.P.P.H. 3:8-23.

Otto, P., E.M. Liebler-Tenorio, M. Elschner, J. Reetz, U. Löhren, and R. Diller. 2006. Detection of rotaviruses and intestinal lesions in broiler chicks from flocks with runting and stunting syndrome (RSS). Avian Dis. 50:411-418.

Renz, K.G., A. Islam, B.F. Cheetham, and S.W. Walkden-Brown. 2006. Absolute quantification using real-time polymerase chain reaction of Marek’s disease virus serotype 2 in field dust samples, feather tips and spleens. J. Virol. Methods. 135:186-191.

Stäuber, N., K. Brechtbühl, L. Bruckner, M.A. Hofmann. 1995. Detection of Newcastle disease virus in poultry vaccines using the polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing amplified DNA. Vaccine. 13:360-364.

Tannock, G.A. and D.R. Shafren. 1994. Avian encephalomyelitis: A review. Avian Pathol. 23:603-620.

Van der Heide, L. 2000. The history of avian reovirus. Avian Dis. 44:638-641.

Van de Zande, S. and E.-M. Kuhn. 2007. Central nervous system signs in chickens caused by a new avian reovirus strain: A pathogenesis study. Vet. Microbiol. 120:42-49.

Wahyuwardani, S., H. Huminto, dan L. Parede. 2005a. Perubahan patologi secara makroskopi dan mikroskopi pada ayam pedaging yang diinfeksi reovirus isolat lokal. J.I.T.V. 10:63-70.

Wahyuwardani, S., H. Huminto, dan L. Parede. 2005b. Efek imunosupresif infeksi reovirus isolat lokal pada ayam pedaging. Prosiding Seminar Nasional “Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner”. Bogor:1049-1055.

Welchman, D.deB., W.J. Cox, R.E. Gough, A.M. Wood, V.J. Smyth, D. Todd, and D. Spackman. 2009. Avian encephalomyelitis virus in reared pheasants: a case study. Avian Pathol. 38: 251-256.

Wood, G.W., J.C. Muskett, and D.H. Thornton. 1986. Observations on the ability of avian reovirus vaccination of hens to protect their progeny against the effects of challenge with homologous and heterologous strain. J. Comp. Path. 96:125-129.

Xie, Z., M.I. Khan, T. Girshick, and Z. Xie. 2005. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to detect avian encephalomyelitis virus. Avian Dis. 49: 227-230.

Zsak, L., R.M. Cha, and J.M. Day. 2013. Chicken parvovirus-Induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers. Avian Dis. 57:123-127


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 by author and J. Kedokt. Hewan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed by:


p-ISSN: 1978-225X e-ISSN: 2502-5600 Copyright© 2007-2021