Activation of Cement Clinker as Catalysts for Transesterification Reaction of Palm Oil Off Grade to Biodiesel

Karina Octaria Putri, Dhani Nur Miftahudin, Zuchra Helwani, Syaiful Bahri


Calcium oxide (CaO) is a heterogeneous solid base which is generally used as a catalyst in making biodiesel. It is mainly obtained from cement clinker and activated through calcination method. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using cement clinker catalyst on the yield of the biodiesel. A batch reactor with a condenser was used in making the biodiesel under favorable conditions such as calcination temperatures of 700 °C, 750 °C and 800 °C, time of 5, 6 and 7 hours, and catalyst concentration of 1%-w, 2%-w, and 3%-w oil. The analysis involved X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) for catalysts and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The catalyst calcination temperature determined the optimum conditions. From this study, the conditions necessary for transesterification reaction include the mole ratio of methanol/oil of 6 to 1, the temperature of 70 °C for 2 hours and 700 °C for 5 hours, and catalyst dosage of 2% by weight. Under these conditions, the yield of the biodiesel was 84.26%. Additionally, at the calcination temperature of 800 °C for 7 hours and catalyst dosage of 3% by weight, the yield of the biodiesel was 76.84%. CaO, SiO2, 2CaO.SiO2 and 3CaO.SiO2 were found in the catalyst through XRD analysis. The specific surface areas of the catalyst were 25,497 m2/g (700 °C/5 hours) and 35,879 m2/g (800 °C/7 hours) through BET analysis. According to the GC-MS analysis, the main components of the biodiesel include methyl palmitate, methyl oleate, and methyl stearate.


biodiesel; CaO; catalysts; cement clinker; transesterification

Full Text:



Budiawan, R. Zulfansyah, Fatra, W. dan Helwani, Z. 2013. Off Grade Palm Oil as A Reneweble Raw Material for Biodiesel Production by Two-Step Processes. ChESA Conference. Januari. Banda Aceh. 7: 40-50.

Gimbun, J., Ali, S., Kanwal, C.C.S.C., Shah, L.A., Muhamad, N.H., Ghazali, Cheng, C.K. dan Nurdin, S. 2013. Biodiesel Production From Rubber Seed Oil Using Activated Cement Clinker as Catalyst. Procedia Engineering. 53: 13-19.

Helwani, Z., Fatra, W., Saputra, E., dan Maulana, R. 2018. Preparation of CaO/Fly ash as a catalyst inhibitor for transesterification process off palm oil in biodiesel production. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 334(1) : 1-10.

Hu, S., Guan, Y. Dan Han, H. 2011. Nano-Magnetic Catalyst KF/CaO-Fe3O4 for Biodiesel Production. Applied Energy. 88: 2685-2690.

Hussain, A., Ali, S., Ahmed, I., Gimbun, J., Albeirutty, M.H. dan Rehan, Z.A. 2016. Microwave Reinforced Transesterification of Rubber Seed Oil Using Waste Cement Clinker Catalyst. Current Nanoscience. 12(5): 576-585.

Marinkovic, D.M., Stankovic, M.V., Velickovic, A.V., Avramovic, J.M., Miladinovic, M.R., Stamenkovic, O.O., Veljkovic, V.B. dan Jovanovic, D.M. 2016. Calcium Oxide as a Promising Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production: Current State and Perspectives. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 56: 1387-1408.

Niju, S., K. M. M. S. Begum, dan N. Anantharaman. 2014. Enhancement of Biodiesel Synthesis Over Highly Active CaO Derived from Natural White Bivalve Clam Shell. Arabian Journal of Chemistry.

Pahan, I. 2012. Panduan Lengkap: Kelapa Sawit. Cetakan XI. Penebar Swadaya: Jakarta.

Putra, Y. L., Helwani, Z. dan Saputra, E. 2018. Modifikasi Kulit Telur Ayam dan Fly Ash sebagai Katalis untuk Reaksi Transesterifikasi Minyak Sawit Off Grade menjadi Biodiesel. JOMTEKNIK. Pekanbaru. Program Sarjana Teknik Kimia Universitas Riau.

Tang, S., Wang, L., Zhang, Y., Li, S., Tian, S. dan Wang, B. 2012. Study on Preparation of Ca/Al/Fe3O4 Magnetic Composite Solid Catalyst and Its Application in Biodiesel Transestrification. Fuel Processing Technology. 95: 84-89.

Ulfayana, S. dan Helwani, Z. 2014. Natural Zeolite for Transesterification Step Catalysts in Biodiesel Production from Palm Off Grade. Abstract Book : Regional Conference on Chemical Engineering. Yogyakarta. 7: 22.

Wei, Z., Xu, C. dan Li, B. 2009. Application of waste eggshell as low-cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production, Bioresource Technology. 100(11): 2883–2885.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Karina Octaria Putri, Dhani Nur Miftahudin, Zuchra Helwani, Syaiful Bahri

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Jurusan Teknik Kimia Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jl. Tgk. Syech Abdur Rauf No.7, Kopelma Darussalam, Banda Aceh, INDONESIA



Nasrul Arahman, Prof. Dr. S.T., M.T.
Phone: +62813-6092-7917



Mirna Rahmah Lubis
Wahyu Rinaldi, ST, M.Sc.