A comparison of English, Acehnese, and Indonesian monophthongs

Tanzir Masykar, Stefanie Pillai, Roshidah Hassan

Abstract


Foreign language learners tend to approximate the quality of non-native vowels to their existing vowel systems. This phenomenon becomes more complicated in learners who already have more than one vowel system in their linguistic repertoire. When learning English, Acehnese-Indonesian speakers are likely to already have two other vowel systems, Acehnese and Indonesian. Thus, the quality of English monophthongs produced by these speakers may resemble the equivalent of Acehnese and Indonesian monophthongs. This study compares the quality of English monophthongs to equivalent Acehnese and Indonesian monophthongs produced by Acehnese-Indonesian speakers. A total of 29 students from a Modern Islamic Boarding School in Aceh participated in this study. The students were recorded producing nine English, 11 Acehnese, and seven Indonesian monophthongs embedded in target words produced in a carrier sentence. The study found that the nine English monophthongs were produced at an approximate quality to either Acehnese and/or Indonesian monophthongs. In some cases, the English vowel was produced similarly to both the equivalent vowels in Acehnese and Indonesian. In other cases, the English vowel was produced more similarly to either Acehnese or Indonesian. The findings of this study provide insights into how Acehnese-Indonesian learners filter English vowels through their existing L1 and L2 sounds and allow for a better understanding of this phenomenon via existing conceptual models. The findings also point to the often-ignored influence of other languages in a speaker’s repertoire on the learning and production of a new language.

Keywords


Acehnese; English; Indonesian; monophthongs; vowel quality

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alispahic, S., Mulak, K. E., & Escudero, P. (2017). Acoustic properties predict perception of unfamiliar Dutch vowels by adult Australian English and Peruvian Spanish listeners. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(52), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00052

Antonina, L. (2017). Chapter five: Methodology: Choosing among paradigms and research designs. Counterpoints, 428, 57-85.

Asyik, A. G. (1987). A Contextual grammar of Acehnese sentences [Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan]. University of Michigan Library. https://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/161507

Beňuš, S. (2021). Investigating spoken English: A practical guide to phonetics and phonology using PRAAT. Palgrave Macmillan.

Best, C. T. (1994). The emergence of native-language phonological influences in infants: A perceptual assimilation model. In J. C. Goodman & H. C. Nusbaum (Eds.), The development of speech perception: The transition from speech sounds to spoken words (pp. 167-224). MIT Press.

Best, C. T., & Tyler, M. D. (2007). Nonnative and second-language speech perception. In O.-S. Bohn & M. J. Munro (Eds.), Language experience in second language speech learning: In honor of James Emil Flege (pp. 13-34). John Benjamins Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.17.07bes

Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2022). PRAAT: Doing phonetics by a computer (Version 6.3.10) [Computer software]. https://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/PRAAT/

Bohn, O.-S., & Flege, J. E. (1992). The production of new and similar vowels by adult German learners of English. Studies in second language acquisition, 14(2), 131-158. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100010792

Deterding, D. (2003). An instrumental study of the monophthong vowels of Singapore English. English World-Wide, 24(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.24.1.02det

Durie, M. (1985). A grammar of Acehnese on the basis of a dialect of north Aceh. Foris Publications.

Escudero, P. (2005). Linguistic perception and second language acquisition: Explaining the attainment of optimal phonological categorization. Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics.

Fata, I. A., Fitrian, F., Mohammad, T., & Yusuf, Y. Q. (2017). Acoustic analysis on English oral vowels produced by Acehnese speakers from Aceh Besar by using PRAAT software. In Y. Q. Yusuf (Ed.), Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Conference (AIC) Syiah Kuala University and the 6th International Conference on Multidisciplinary Research (ICMR) in conjunction with the International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics (ICELTICs) (pp. 591-596). Universitas Syiah Kuala.

Flege, J. E. (1987). The production of “new” and “similar” phones in a foreign language: Evidence for the effect of equivalence classification. Journal of Phonetics, 15(1), 47-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30537-6

Flege, J. E. (1991). The interlingual identification of Spanish and English vowels: Orthographic evidence. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43(3), 701-731. https://doi.org/10.1080/14640749108400993

Flege, J. E. (1995). Second language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems. In W. Strange (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 233-277). York Press.

Gonçalves, B., Loureiro-Porto, L., Ramasco, J. J., & Sánchez, D. (2018). Mapping the Americanization of English in space and time. PLoS ONE, 13(5), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197741

Grix, J. (2004). Foundations of research. Palgrave Macmillan Limited.

Kirkpatrick, A., & Sussex, R. (2012). English as an international language in Asia: implications for language education (Vol. 1). Springer Netherlands.

Ladefoged, P., & Johnson, K. (2014). A course in phonetics (7th ed.). Cengage Learning.

Lauder, A. (2010). The status and function of English in Indonesia: A review of key factors. Hubs-Asia, 10(1), 9-12. https://doi.org/10.7454/mssh.v12i1.128

Lipińska, D. (2015). Production of L3 vowels: Is it possible to separate them from L1 and L2 sounds? Research in Language, 13(1), 77-92. https://doi.org/10.1515/rela-2015-0011

Low, E. L. (2016). Phonological patterning for English as a lingua franca in Asia: Implications for norms & practice in multilingual Asia. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 5, 309-332. https://doi.org/10.1515/jelf-2016-0022

Masykar, T., Agusmaniza, R., Masykar, N. T., & Nurrahmi, F. (2021). An instrumental analysis of oral monophthongs in Aceh Barat dialect of Acehnese. EduLite: Journal of English Education, Literature and Culture, 6(2), 383-396. https://doi.org/10.30659/e.6.2.383-396

Perwitasari, A. (2019). The acquisition of English vowels by Javanese and Sundanese native speakers [Doctoral dissertation, Leiden University]. Leiden University Scholarly Publications. https://hdl.handle.net/1887/68575

Perwitasari, A., Klamer, M., & Schiller, N. O. (2016). Formant frequencies and vowel space area in Javanese and Sundanese English language learners. 3L: Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 22(3), 141-152. https://doi.org/10.17576/3L-2016-2203-10

Perwitasari, A., Klamer, M., Witteman, J., & Schiller, N. O. (2015). Vowel duration in English as a second language among Javanese learners. In M. Wolters, J. Livingstone, B. Beattie, R. Smith, M. MacMahon, J. Stuart-Smith, & J. Scobbie (Eds.), Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS 2015) (Paper 3). International Phonetic Association.

Pillai, S., Mohd. Don, Z., Knowles, G., & Tang, J. (2010). Malaysian English: An instrumental analysis of vowel contrasts. World Englishes, 29, 159-172. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2010.01636.x

Pillai, S., & Yusuf, Y. Q. (2012). An instrumental analysis of Acehnese oral vowels. Language and Linguistics, 13(6), 1029-1050.

Roever, C., & Phakiti, A. (2017). Quantitative methods for second language research: A problem-solving approach. Routledge.

Santoso, T. (2013, July 15). Seputar ejaan bahasa Aceh [About Acehnese spellings]. Serambinews. https://aceh.tribunnews.com/2013/07/15/seputar-ejaan-bahasa-aceh

Sharbawi, S. (2006). The vowels of Brunei English: An acoustic investigation. English World-Wide, 27(3), 247-264. https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.27.3.03sha

Sobarna, C. (2007). Bahasa Sunda sudah di ambang pintu kematiankah? [Is the Sunda language at the brink of extinction]. Makara Human Behavior Studies in Asia, 11(1), 13-17. https://doi.org/10.7454/mssh.v11i1.39

Soderberg, C., & Olson, K. (2008). Indonesian. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38(2), 209-213. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100308003320

Tan, R. S. K., & Low, E.-L. (2010). How different are the monophthongs of Malay speakers of Malaysian and Singapore English? English World-Wide, 31(2), 162-189. https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.31.2.03tan

van Zanten, E. (1986). Allophonic variation in the production of Indonesian vowels. Perception, 142, 427-446. https://doi.org/10.1163/22134379-90003348

van Zanten, E., & van Heuven, V. J. (1984). The Indonesian vowels as pronounced and perceived by Toba Batak, Sundanese and Javanese speakers. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 140, 497-521. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27863619

Widagsa, R. (2015, September 25-26). Acoustic analysis of English vowel formant frequencies produced by Indonesian native speakers [Paper presentation]. The 2nd International Language and Language Teaching Conference, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Widagsa, R., & Putro, A. A. Y. (2017). Acoustic measurement on vowel production of English as a Second Language by Indonesian EFL Learners. English Review: Journal of English Education, 6(1), 71-80. https://doi.org/10.25134/erjee.v6i1.772

Wirachmi, A. (2022, January 21). Ini data terbaru 5 bahasa daerah dengan penutur terbanyak [Latest data of 5 regional languages with the highest number of speakers]. Sindonews. https://nasional.sindonews.com/read/663495/15/ini-data-terbaru-5-bahasa-daerah-dengan-penutur-terbanyak-1642759291

Yunus, Y., & Pillai, S. (2020). Pola sebutan monoftong bahasa Jerman oleh penutur bahasa Melayu [The pronunciation patterns of German monophthongs among Malay speakers]. Melayu: Jurnal Antarabangsa Dunia Melayu, 13(2), 223-252. https://doi.org/10.37052/jm.13(2)no3

Yusuf, Y. Q. (2013). A comparative study of vowels in the Acehnese language spoken in Kedah, Malaysia and Aceh, Indonesia [Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Malaya]. UM Students' Repository. http://studentsrepo.um.edu.my/4459/

Yusuf, Y. Q., Fata, I. A., Aziz, Z. A., Surya, D., & Pillai, S. (2022). Acoustic analysis of an Acehnese dialect: Pidinese oral monophthong vowels. Dialectologia, 28, 203-223.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v10i3.30477

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


View Journal Stats