### A Multigroup Invariance Analysis and Gender Difference of Students’ Self-efficacy and Attitude Concerning Mathematics

#### Abstract

*This article aimed to examine multigroup invariance of Mathematics Self-efficacy and Attitude Scales (MSAS) and examine the differences of MSAS in term of gender. 1135 (630 female and 505 male) Year 9 students in Aceh, Indonesia were involved in the study. The invariance analysis was performed to investigate whether the items in the MSAS are behaving identically for Year 9 female and male students in the province of Aceh, Indonesia. The results reported the indication of multigroup equivalence of the MSAS between gender (p-value is not statistically significant or ∆CFI ≤ 0.01). An independent t-test indentified that students’ attitude concerning mathematics is significantly different between gender of students. Female students’ positive attitude concerning mathematics is higher compared to male students’. This study may be used as one of the evidences as for the needs to enhance male students attitude toward mathematics.*

#### Keywords

#### Full Text:

PDF#### References

Aiken, L. R. (1970). Attitudes toward mathematics. Review of educational research, 40, 551-596.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191-215.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In F. Fajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 307-337). Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.

Byrne, B. M. (2013). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Routledge.

Chen, P. P. (2002). Exploring the accuracy and predictability of the self-efficacy beliefs of seventh-grade mathematics students. Learning and Individual Differences, 14(1), 77-90.

Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233-255.

Choi, B. C., & Pak, A. W. (2005). PEER REVIEWED: A Catalog of Biases in Questionnaires. Preventing chronic disease [electronic resource]. 2(1).

Doll, W. J., Deng, X., Raghunathan, T., Torkzadeh, G., & Xia, W. (2004). The meaning and measurement of user satisfaction: A multigroup invariance analysis of the end-user computing satisfaction instrument. Journal of Management Information Systems, 21(1), 227-262.

Doll, W. J., Hendrickson, A., & Deng, X. (1998). Using Davis's Perceived Usefulness and Ease‐of‐use Instruments for Decision Making: A Confirmatory and Multigroup Invariance Analysis. Decision Sciences, 29(4), 839-869.

Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., & Linn, M. C. (2010). Cross-national patterns of gender differences in mathematics: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136(1), 103.

Fennema, E. H., & Sherman, J. A. (1978). Sex-related differences in mathematics achievement and related factors: A further study. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 189-203.

Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. London: SAGE.

Finney, S. J., & Schraw, G. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs in college statistics courses. Contemporary educational psychology, 28(2), 161-186.

Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., & Goetz, T. (2007). Girls and mathematics—A “hopeless” issue? A control-value approach to gender differences in emotions towards mathematics. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 22(4), 497-514.

Guay, F., Chanal, J., Ratelle, C. F., Marsh, H. W., Larose, S., & Boivin, M. (2010). Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(4), 711-735.

Hackett, G. (1985). Role of mathematics self-efficacy in the choice of math-related majors of college women and men: A path analysis. Journal of counseling psychology, 32(1), 47.

Hackett, G., & Betz, N. E. (1989). An exploration of the mathematics self-efficacy/mathematics performance correspondence. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 261-273.

Hall, J. M., & Ponton, M. K. (2005). Mathematics Self-Efficacy of College Freshman. Journal of Developmental Education, 28(3), 26-28.

Hoffman, B. (2010). “I think I can, but I'm afraid to try”: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and mathematics anxiety in mathematics problem-solving efficiency. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(3), 276-283.

Lloyd, J. E., Walsh, J., & Yailagh, M. S. (2005). Sex differences in performance attributions, self-efficacy, and achievement in mathematics: If I'm so smart, why don't I know It? Canadian Journal of Education, 28(3), 384-408.

Nicolaidou, M., & Philippou, G. (2003). Attitudes towards mathematics, self-efficacy and achievement in problem solving. European Research in Mathematics Education III. Pisa: University of Pisa.

Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). Math= male, me= female, therefore math≠ me. Journal of personality and social psychology, 83(1), 44.

OECD. (2013). PISA 2012 Results: What Student Can Know and Can Do - Student Performance in Mathematics, Reading and Science. Retrieved from PISA: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264201170-en

Pajares, F., & Graham, L. (1999). Self-efficacy, motivation constructs, and mathematics performance of entering middle school students. Contemporary educational psychology, 24(2), 124-139.

Pajares, M. F., & Graham, L. (1999). Self-efficacy, motivation constructs, and mathematics performance of entering middle school students. Contemporary educational psychology, 24(2), 124-139.

Pajares, M. F., & Kranzler, J. (1995). Self-efficacy beliefs and general mental ability in mathematical problem-solving. Contemporary educational psychology, 20(4), 426-443.

Pajares, M. F., & Miller, M. D. (1994). Role of self-efficacy and self-concept beliefs in mathematical problem solving: A path analysis. Journal of educational psychology, 86(2), 193.

Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-regulated learning. International journal of educational research, 31(6), 459-470.

Reise, S. P., Widaman, K. F., & Pugh, R. H. (1993). Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory: two approaches for exploring measurement invariance. Psychological Bulletin, 114(3), 552.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.

Shrigley, R. L., Koballa, T. R., & Simpson, R. D. (1988). Defining attitude for science educators. Journal of research in science teaching, 25(8), 659-678.

Skaalvik, S., & Skaalvik, E. M. (2004). Gender differences in math and verbal self-concept, performance expectations, and motivation. Sex Roles, 50(3-4), 241-252.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary educational psychology, 25(1), 82-91.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/jdm.v5i2.11640

#### Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 timesPDF - 0 times

### Refbacks

- There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Elizar Elizar, I Gusti Ngurah Darmawan

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

**Jurnal Didaktik Matematika**

ISSN ** 2355–4185** (print) |

**(online)**

**2548–8546****Published by:**

Universitas Syiah Kuala incorporated with the Indonesian Mathematics Educators Society (I-MES)

Mathematics Education Department Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, Indonesia - 23111

Website : http://jurnal.usk.ac.id/DM/

Email : jurnal.jdm@usk.ac.id

Jurnal Didaktik Matematika by Program Studi Magister Pendidikan Matematika FKIP Universitas Syiah Kuala is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.