Social practice on Facebook: Critical discourse analysis in the process of text production

Hetti Waluati Triana, Eka Putra Wirman, Martin Kustati, Reflinaldi Reflinaldi, Awliya Rahmi, Nelmawarni Nelmawarni


The study aims to identify the ways to produce text production process by Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN, or State Islamic University) students in Padang on Facebook. Documentations, observations, and in depth-interviews were used to collect data. There were 1,214 discourses found on group and personal accounts of 27 informants, and 400 discourses were taken as data of the research. The analysis was conducted by following Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis, (CDA), with the Critical Linguistics approach. The research findings show that the text production process by UIN students on Facebook were done in three ways, namely producing their own text, spreading other people’s texts that are shared from the site, and producing text as a result of consumption of other texts. Producing text itself is a way of producing text by creating its own status as a form of expression of thoughts, feelings, and experiences, without referring to other texts or texts that have been published on other walls. The form of production by spreading text from other website is the most common form of text production. Production status is a form of the author’s reaction to the text he or she understood. 


social practice; Facebook; critical discourse analysis; process; text production

Full Text:



Achugar, M. (2007). Between remembering and forgetting: Uruguayan military discourse about human rights (1976—2004). Discourse & Society, 18(5), 521-547.

Alfina, I., Mulia, R., Fanany, M. I., & Ekanata, Y. (2018). Hate speech detection in the Indonesian language: A dataset and preliminary study [Paper presentation]. 2017 International Conference on Advanced Computer Science and Information Systems, ICACSIS, Bali, Indonesia.

Alvesson, M., & Kärreman, D. (2011). Decolonializing discourse: Critical reflections on organizational discourse analysis. Human Relations, 64(9), 1121–1146.

Arnaboldi, V., Guazzini, A., & Passarella, A. (2013). Egocentric online social networks: Analysis of key features and prediction of tie strength in Facebook. Computer Communications, 36, 1130–1144.

Bachrach, Y., Kosinski, M., Graepel, T., Kohli, P., & Stillwell, D. (2012). Personality and patterns of Facebook usage [Paper presentation]. Proceedings of the 4th Annual ACM Web Science Conference, Evanston Illinois, USA.

Baltar, J., & Brunet, I. (2012). Social research 2.0: Virtual snowball sampling method using Facebook. Internet Research, 22(1), 57-74.

Barab, S. A. (2003). An introduction to the special issue: Designing for virtual communities in the service of learning. The Information Society, 19(3), 197-201.

Barton, E. (2003). Linguistic discourse analysis: How the language in texts works. In C. Bazerman & P. Prior (Eds.), What writing does and how it does it (pp. 63-88). Routledge.

Bhatia, V. K., Flowerdew, J., & Jones, R. H. (2008). Approaches to discourse analysis. In V. K. Bhatia, J. Flowerdew, & R. H. Jones (Eds.), Advances in discourse studies (pp. 11-28). Routledge.

Bishop, J. (2009). Enhancing the understanding of genres of web-based communities: The role of the ecological cognition framework. International Journal of Web-Based Communities, 5(1), 4-17.

Blommaert, J. (2005). Discourse: A critical introduction. Cambridge University Press.

Bloor, M., & Bloor, T. (2013). The practice of critical discourse analysis: An introduction. Routledge.

Carvalho, A. (2008). Media (ted) discourse and society: Rethinking the framework of critical discourse analysis. Journalism Studies, 9(2), 161-177.

Celli, F., & Polonio, L. (2013). Relationships between personality and interactions in Facebook. In X. M. Tu, A. M. White, & N. Lu (Eds.), Social networking: Recent trends, emerging issues and future outlook (pp. 41-54). Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Ching, A., Edunov, S., Kabiljo, M., Logothetis, D., & Muthukrishnan, S. (2015). One trillion edges: Graph processing at Facebook-scale. Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment, 8(12), 1804-1815.

Christofides, E., Muise, A., & Desmarais, S. (2012). Hey mom, what’s on your Facebook? Comparing Facebook disclosure and privacy in adolescents and adults. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(1), 48-54.

Ellis, D., Oldridge, R., & Vasconcelos, A. (2004). Community and virtual community. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 38(1), 145-186.

Eriyanto, A. F. (2002). Analisis framing: Konstruksi, ideologi, dan politik media [Framing analysis: Construction, ideology, and media politics]. Penerbit LKiS Group.

Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and social change (Vol. 10). Polity Press.

Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. Longman.

Fairclough, N. (2005). Peripheral vision: Discourse analysis in organization studies: The case for critical realism. Organization Studies, 26(6), 915-939.

Fairclough, N. (2007). Discourse and contemporary social change (Vol. 54). Peter Lang.

Gee, J. P. (2004). Discourse analysis: What makes it critical? In R. Rogers (Ed.), An introduction to critical discourse analysis in education (pp. 49–80). Routledge.

Georgaca, E., & Avdi, E. (2011). Discourse analysis. In D. Harper & A. R. Thompson (Eds.), Qualitative research methods in mental health and psychotherapy: A guide for students and practitioners (pp. 147-161). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Golbeck, J., Robles, C., & Turner, K. (2011). Predicting personality with social media. CHI’11 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vancouver, Canada.

Greenwood, S., Perrin, A., & Duggan, M. (2016). Social media update 2016. Pew Research Center, 11(2), 1-18.

Guedes, E., Sancassiani, F., Carta, M. G., Campos, C., Machado, S., King, A. L. S., & Nardi, A. E. (2016). Internet addiction and excessive social networks use: What about Facebook? Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH, 12, 43-48.

Hargittai, E. (2010). Facebook privacy settings: Who cares? First Monday, 15(8).

Henri, F., & Pudelko, B. (2003). Understanding and analysing activity and learning in virtual communities. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19(4), 474–487.

Heracleous, L., & Hendry, J. (2000). Discourse and the study of organization: Toward a structurational perspective. Human Relations, 53(10), 1251–1286.

Hodges, B. D., Kuper, A., & Reeves, S. (2008). Discourse analysis. British Medical Journal, 337, 570–572.

Hoey, M. (2013). Textual interaction: An introduction to written discourse analysis. Routledge.

Hogan, B. (2010). The presentation of self in the age of social media: Distinguishing performances and exhibitions online. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 30(6), 377–386.

Jørgensen, M. W., & Phillips, L. J. (2002). Discourse analysis as theory and method. Sage Publications.

Keraf, G. (1993). Komposisi: Sebuah pengantar kemahiran bahasa [Composition: An introduction to language skills]. Nusa Indah.

Kim, J. H., Kim, M. S., & Nam, Y. (2010). An analysis of self-construals, motivations, Facebook use, and user satisfaction. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 26(11-12), 1077–1099.

Koller, V. (2012). How to analyse collective identity in discourse-textual and contextual parameters. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis Across Disciplines, 5(2), 19-38.

Komito, L. (2011). Social media and migration: Virtual community 2.0. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(6), 1075–1086.

Koroleva, K., Brecht, F., Goebel, L., & Malinova, M. (2011). ‘Generation Facebook’ A cognitive calculus model of teenage user behavior on social network sites [Paper presentation]. AMCIS 2011 Proceedings, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Kosinski, M., Matz, S. C., Gosling, S. D., Popov, V., & Stillwell, D. (2015). Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines. American Psychologist, 70(6), 543-556.

Krause, A. E., North, A. C., & Heritage, B. (2014). The uses and gratifications of using Facebook music listening applications. Computers in Human Behavior, 39, 71-77.

Kruijff-Korbayová, I., & Steedman, M. (2003). Discourse and information structure. Journal of Logic, Language and Information, 12(3), 249–259.

Kusyanti, A., Puspitasari, D. R., Catherina, H. P. A., & Sari, Y. A. L. (2017). Information privacy concerns on Teens as Facebook users in Indonesia. Procedia Computer Science, 124, 632–638.

Liu, Y., & O’Halloran, K. L. (2009). Intersemiotic texture: Analyzing cohesive devices between language and images. Social Semiotics, 19(4), 367–388.

Locke, T. (2004). Critical discourse analysis. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Majid, A. H. A., Stapa, S. H., & Keong, Y. C. (2015). Blended scaffolding strategies through Facebook for learning and improving the writing process and writing performance. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(4), 36-40.

Maschler, Y., & Schiffrin, D. (2001). Discourse markers: Language, meaning, and context. In D. Tannen, H. E., & D. Schiffrin (Eds.), The handbook of discourse analysis (pp. 54–75). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Mendelson, A. L., & Papacharissi, Z. (2010). Look at us: Collective narcissism in college student Facebook photo galleries. In Z. Papacharissi (Ed.), The networked self: Identity, community and culture on social network sites (pp. 251-273). Routledge.

Mills, S. (2014). Language and gender: Interdisciplinary perspectives. Routledge.

Müller, F., & Thiesing, F. (2011). Social networking APIs for companies: An example of using the Facebook API for companies [Paper presentation]. 2011 International Conference on Computational Aspects of Social Networks (CASoN) Salamanca, Spain.

O’Keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011). The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. Pediatrics, 127(4), 800–804.

Obaidullah, M., & Rahman, M. A. (2018). The impact of internet and social media on the habit of reading books: A case study in the southern region of Bangladesh. Studies in English Language and Education, 5(1), 25-39.

Parks, M. R. (2010). Social network sites as virtual communities. In Z. Papacharissi (Ed.), A networked self: Identity, community, and culture on social network sites (pp. 113–131). Routledge.

Pempek, T. A., Yermolayeva, Y. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2009). College students’ social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(3), 227–238.

Risager, K. (2005). Linguacultural as a key concept in language and culture teaching. In B. Preisler, A. Fabricius, H. Haberland, S. Kjærbeck, & K. Risager (Eds.), The consequences of mobility: Linguistic and sociocultural contact zones (pp. 185-196). Roskilde Universitet.

Rogers, R. (2004). An introduction to critical discourse analysis in education. In R. Rogers (Ed.), An introduction to critical discourse analysis in education (pp. 31-48). Routledge.

Saville-Troike, M. (2008). The ethnography of communication: An introduction (Vol. 14). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Sheyholislami, J. (2001). Yesterday's "separatists" are today's "resistance fighters": A critical discourse analysis. Carleton University.

Song, I., Larose, R., Eastin, M. S., & Lin, C. A. (2004). Internet gratifications and Internet addiction: On the uses and abuses of new media. Cyberpsychology & Behavio, 7(4), 384–394.

Stern, L. A., & Taylor, K. (2007). Social networking on Facebook. Journal of the Communication, Speech & Theatre Association of North Dakota, 20, 9-20.

Stieglitz, S., & Dang-Xuan, L. (2013). Social media and political communication: A social media analytics framework. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 3(4), 1277–1291.

Sulistyo, P. B., & Azmawati, A. A. (2016). The roles of Facebook in creating new anti-corruption social movement through online community in Indonesia. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 6(7), 33–37.

Susilo, A. (2008). Use of Facebook for academic network learning in Universitas Terbuka - Indonesia. Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, 3(2), 99–114.

Szolnoki, G., Thach, L., & Kolb, D. (2016). Current status of global wine ecommerce and social media. In G. Szolnoki, L. Thach, & D. Kolb (Eds.), Successful Social Media and Ecommerce Strategies in the Wine Industry (pp. 1-12). Palgrave Macmillan.

Tannen, D., Hamilton, H. E., & Schiffrin, D. (2015). The handbook of discourse analysis (Vol. 1). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Tenorio, E. H. (2011). Critical discourse analysis, an overview. Nordic Journal of English Studies, 10(1), 183–210.

Tosun, L. P. (2012). Motives for Facebook use and expressing “true self” on the Internet. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(4), 1510–1517.

Utami, D. (2010). Karakteristik penggunaan bahasa pada status Facebook [Characteristics of language use on Facebook status] [Doctoral dissertation, Universitas Sebelas Maret]. Surakarta.

van Dijk, T. (2002). Ideology: political discourse and cognition. In C. S. P. Chilton (Ed.), Politics as text and talk (pp. 33-57). Benjamins.

Van Dijk, T. A. (2009). Critical discourse studies: A sociocognitive approach. Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, 2(1), 62-86.

Virginia, A. (2012). Pergeseran budaya komunikasi pada era media baru: Studi kasus penggunaan Facebook oleh digital natives [A shift in communication culture in the new media era: Case studies of the use of Facebook by digital natives]. Jurnal Komunikasi Indonesia, 1(2), 77–86.

Waterton, E., Smith, L., & Campbell, G. (2006). The utility of discourse analysis to heritage studies: The Burra Charter and social inclusion. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 12(4), 339–355.

Willig, C. (2008). Discourse analysis. In D. J. A. Smith (Ed.), Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods (pp. 160-185). Sage.

Wodak, R. (2002). Aspects of critical discourse analysis. Zeitschrift Für Angewandte Linguistik, 36(10), 5–31.

Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (2009). Critical discourse analysis: History, agenda, theory and methodology. Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, 2, 1-33.

Yee, N., Bailenson, J. N., Urbanek, M., Chang, F., & Merget, D. (2007). The unbearable likeness of being digital: The persistence of nonverbal social norms in online virtual environments. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(1), 115–121.

Young, A. L., & Quan-Haase, A. (2009). Information revelation and internet privacy concerns on social network sites: A case study of Facebook [Paper presentation]. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Communities and Technologies, New York, USA.

Yulianti, I., & Tung, W. (2013). The relationship among brand experience, brand image and customer satisfaction of Facebook users in Indonesia. World Applied Sciences Journal, 28(13), 100–113.

Zyoud, S. H., Sweileh, W. M., Awang, R., & Al‑Jabi, S. W. (2018). Global trends in research related to social media in psychology: Mapping and bibliometric analysis. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 12, 1-8.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View Journal Stats