E-political caricatures-assisted cooperative learning: Disengaging EFL learners from individualistic, competitive and racial discrimination’s learning settings

Yohannes Telaumbanua, Yalmiadi Yalmiadi, Martini Martini, Hasbi Hasbi


This qualitative research was aimed at reviving the principles of cooperative learning in the English class and critically studying the effects of it on the learners’ learning process and language skills. A number of 25 English learners were purposively selected as research participants. Journal writing, observation, and interview were techniques for collecting the data. Miles and Huberman’s model was a way of analysing the data while triangulation (credibility and dependability) was the strategy for qualifying the finding. The findings indicated that the e-political caricatures-assisted cooperative learning requires authentic and global learning themes. It improves the qualities of the learners’ global awareness, intercultural competence, communication skills, collaboration (team building, capitalisation on one another resources, deep learning, mastering language knowledge or competence and skills of English), critical thinking skills, and creativity (4Cs). It then leads the learners to active learning, project and problem-based learning, and develops digital skills and digital literacy skills. When compared to the previous language skills, the levels of the learners’ English language performance were between “intermediate” (22 learners) and “proficient” (three learners). These results signify that cooperative learning strongly enhance the learners’ language competence and skills of English and inspire them to collaboratively work and learn regardless of differences. In conclusion, the cooperative learning treats equally all class members, understand and accept differences in race, level of language skills, intelligence, etc., to achieve the shared learning goals, and further encourage learners to construct the knowledge and skills of English collaboratively.


cooperative learning; EFL learners; individualistic; competitive; discrimination; learning settings

Full Text:



Aronson, E., et al. (1978). The jigsaw classroom. Sage.

Barnes, D. (1989). Active learning. Leeds University TVEI Support Project.

Bloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. Longman.

Bonwell, C., & Eison, J. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom AEHE-ERIC higher education report No. 1. Jossey-Bass.

Carter, N., Bryant-Lukosius, D., DiCenso, A., Blythe, J., & Neville, A. J. (2014). The Use of Triangulation in Qualitative Research. Oncology Nursing Forum, 41(5), 545-547.

Center for Teaching Innovation. (n.d.). Collaborative learning. https://teaching.cornell.edu/teaching-resources/engaging-students/collaborative-learning

Chaiklin, S. (2003). The zone of proximal development in Vygotsky’s analysis of learning and instruction. In A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V. S. Ageyev & S. Miller (Eds.), Vygotsky’s educational theory and practice in cultural context (pp. 39-64). Cambridge University Press.

Chen, G., & Chiu, M. M. (2008). Online discussion processes. Computers and Education, 50(3), 678-692.

Chisholm, H., (1911). Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th edition). Cambridge University Press.

Chiu, M. M. (2000). Group problem solving processes: Social interactions and individual actions. The Theory of Social Behavior, 30(1), 27-50.

Chiu, M. M. (2004). Adapting teacher interventions to student needs during cooperative learning. American Educational Research Journal Summer, 41(2), 365-399.

Chiu, M. M. (2008). Flowing toward correct contributions during groups’ mathematics problem solving: A statistical discourse analysis. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 17(3), 415-463.

Chiu, M. M., & Khoo, L. (2005). A new method for analyzing sequential processes: Dynamic multi-level analysis. Small Group Research, 36(5), 600-631.

Choi, J., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2011). Relationships among cooperative learning experiences, social interdependence, children’s aggression, victimization, and prosocial behaviors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(4), 976-1003.

Dabell, J. (2018). The jigsaw classroom. https://johndabell.com/2018/07/25/the-jigsaw-classroom/

Deardorff, D. K. (2006). The identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization at institutions of higher education in the United States. Journal of Studies in International Education 10(3), 241-266.

Deardorff, D. K. (2009). The Sage handbook of intercultural competence. Sage Publications.

Deutsch, M. (1949). A theory of cooperation and competition. Human Relations, 2(2), 129-152.

Devers, K. J. (1999). How will we know “good” qualitative research when we see it? Beginning the dialogue in health services research. Health Services Research, 34(5), 1153-1188.

Dillenbourg, P. (1999). Collaborative learning: Cognitive and computational approaches. Advances in learning and instruction series. Elsevier Science, Inc.

DuFour, R., Rebecca, D., Robert, E., Thomas, W. M., & Mike, M. (2016). Learning by doing: A Handbook for professional learning communities at work. Solution Tree.

Ghahraman, V., & Tamimy, M. (2017). The role of culture in cooperative learning. International Journal of Language Studies, 11(2), 89-120.

Gillies, R. M. (2016). Cooperative learning: Review of research and practice. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(3), 39-51.

Gilles, R. M., & Adrian, F. (2003). Cooperative learning: The social and intellectual outcomes of learning in groups. Farmer Press.

Gokhale, A. A. (1995). Collaborative learning enhances critical thinking. Journal of Technology Education, 7(1), 22-30.

Goodsell, A. S., Maher, M. R., Tinto, V., Smith, B. L., & MacGregor, J. (1992). Collaborative learning: A sourcebook for higher education. National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment (NCTLA).

Halone, K., Cunconan, T., Coakley, C., & Wolvin, A. (1998). Toward the establishment of general dimensions underlying the listening process. International Journal of Listening, 12(1), 12-28.

Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (2007). Ethnography principles in practice (3rd edition). Routledge.

Harding-Smith, T. (1993). Learning together: An introduction to collaborative learning. HarperCollins College Publishers.

Heeden, T. (2003). The reverse jigsaw: A process of cooperative learning and discussion. Teaching Sociology, 31(3), 325-332.

Hereford, Z. (n.d.). How to think critically and problem solve. Essential Life Skill. https://www.essentiallifeskills.net/thinkcritically.html

Hwong, N., Caswell, A., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (1993). Effects of cooperative and individualistic learning on prospective elementary teachers’ music achievement and attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology, 133(1), 53-64.

Jenkins, H. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. The MIT Press.

Johnson, D. W. (2009). An educational psychology success story: Social interdependence theory and cooperative learning. Educational Researcher, 38(5), 365-379.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1975). Learning together and alone, cooperation, competition, and individualization. Prentice-Hall.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1994). Learning together and alone, cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Prentice-Hall.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. (2007). The state of cooperative learning in postsecondary and professional settings. Educational Psychology Review, 19(1), 15-29.

Johnson, R. T., & Johnson, D. W. (2000). Teaching students to be peacemakers: Results of twelve years of research. In S. Gavriel & Cairns (Eds.), Handbook on Peace Education (pp. 226-227). Psychology Press.

Johnson, R. T., & Johnson, D. W. (2009). An educational psychology success story: Social interdependence theory and cooperative learning. Educational Researcher, 38(5), 366-367.

Johnson, R. T., Johnson, D. W., & Holubec, E. J. (1998). Cooperation in the classroom. Allyn and Bacon.

Kagan, S. (1994). Cooperative learning. Kagan Publishing.

Kevin, S., & Rosemary, S. (2009). Educational psychology (2nd edition). The Saylor.

Lane, J., & Lange, E. (1999). Writing clearly: Grammar for editing. Heinle ELT.

Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press.

Lewin, K. (1935). A dynamic theory of personality. McGraw-Hill.

Lewin, K. (1947). Frontiers in group dynamics: Concept, method and reality in social science; Social equilibria and social change. Human Relations, 1(1), 5-41.

Lyman, F. T. (1981). The responsive classroom discussion: The inclusion of all students. In A. Anderson (Ed.), Mainstreaming Digest, (pp. 109-113). University of Maryland Press.

Lynch, J. (1926). A History of caricature. Faber & Dwyer.

Marshall, M. N. (1996). Sampling for qualitative research. Family Practice, 13(6), 522-526.

May, M., & Doob, L. (1937). Cooperation and competition. Social Sciences Research Council.

Messner, W., & Schäfer, N. (2012) The ICCA facilitator’s manual. Intercultural communication and collaboration appraisal. GloBus Research.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd edition). Sage.

Mitnik, R., Recabarren, M., Nussbaum, M., & Soto, A. (2009). Collaborative robotic instruction: A graph teaching experience. Computers & Education, 53(2), 330-342.

Moeller, A. J., & Nugent, K. (2014). Building intercultural competence in the language classroom. Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education, 1(1), 1-18.

Mustafa, F., & Samad, N. M. A. (2015). Cooperative integrated reading and composition technique for improving content and organization in writing. Studies in English Language and Education, 2(1), 29-44.

Obukhova, L. F., & Korepanova, I. A. (2009). The Zone of Proximal Development: A Spatiotemporal Model. Journal of Russian & East European Psychology, 47(6), 25-47.

Oshima, A., & Hogue, A. (1991). Writing academic English: A writing and sentence structure workbook for international students (3rd edition). Addison-Wesley.

Owens, R. E. (2016). Language development (9th edition). Pearson.

Palincsar, A. S. (1986). Reciprocal teaching: In teaching reading as thinking. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.

Palinscar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2), 117-175.

Renau, M. L. R. (2016). A review of the traditional and current language teaching methods. International Journal of Innovation and Research in Educational Sciences, 3(2), 82-88.

Resnick, L. B. (1987). Education and learning to think. National Academy Press.

Ross, J., & Smythe, E. (1995). Differentiating cooperative learning to meet the needs of gifted learners: A case for transformational leadership. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 19(1), 63-82.

Sargeant, J. (2012) Qualitative research part II: Participants, analysis, and quality assurance. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 4(1), 1-3.

Schul, J. E. (2011). Revisiting an old friend: The practice and promise of cooperative learning for the twenty-first century. The Social Studies, 102(2), 88-93.

Sebranek, P., Kemper, D., & Meyer, V. (2006). Writers Inc.: A student handbook for writing and learning. Houghton Mifflin Company.

Sharan, Y (2010). Cooperative learning for academic and social gains: Valued pedagogy, problematic practice. European Journal of Education, 45(2), 300-313.

Slavin, R. E. (1986). Using student team learning (3rd edition). The Johns Hopkins University.

Slavin, R. E. (1995). Cooperative learning: Theory research and practice. Allyn and Bacon.

Spitzberg, B. H. (2000). A model of intercultural communication competence. In L. A. Samovar & R. E. Porter (Eds.), Intercultural Communication - A Reader, (pp. 375-87). Wadsworth Publishing.

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research. Sage Publications.

Stricklin, K. (2011). Hands-on reciprocal teaching: A comprehension technique. The Reading Teacher, 64(8), 620-625.

Tran, T. Q., & Seepho, S. (2016). An intercultural communicative competence model for EFL learners. [Paper presentation]. Conference Proceedings of the 4th TESOL: Teaching Methodologies and Learning Outcomes, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

UNESCO. (2018, March 15). Digital skills critical for jobs and social inclusion. https://en.unesco.org/news/digital-skills-critical-jobs-and-social-inclusion.

William, G. (2009). Reading in a second language: Moving from theory to practice. Cambridge University Press.

Wood, D. F. (2003). ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: Problem based learning. BMJ, 326(7384), 328-330.

Yasseri, D., Finley, P. M., Mayfield, B. E., Davis, D. W., Thompson, P., & Vogler, J. S. (2018). The hard work of soft skills: Augmenting the project-based learning experience with interdisciplinary teamwork. Instructional Science, 46(3), 457-488.

Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics: Oxford introductions to language study. Oxford University Press.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v7i2.16492

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View Journal Stats