Instruments’ validation of access to motivation, skills, and use of digital technology: EFL context in Indonesia

Lantip Diat Prasojo, Wiwik Wijayanti, Lia Yuliana, Nurtanio Agus, Akhmad Habibi, Mohd Faiz Mohd Yaakob


The purpose of this study was to validate instruments regarding digital technology access among Indonesian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) faculty members during the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). An EFL Faculty member’s Access to Digital Technology (EFL-FADT) scale was adopted from previous relevant studies consisting of Motivation, Skills, and Use. A total of 235 EFL faculty members from three public and three private universities in Indonesia participated in this study, selected through cluster random sampling. A survey design was applied to examine the factor structure of the EFL-FADT. The survey data were computed through the steps of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with IBM SPSS 23 and SPSS AMOS 23. Through the EFA with Varimax rotation, two factors emerged from Motivation, three from Skills, and two from Use. The result successfully mapped the proposed model. The CFA approach verified the instrument which was satisfactory for Indonesian EFL faculty members. The findings informed 25 valid and reliable indicators. The measured scale achieves psychometric properties. It can provide future studies with a tool to capture EFL faculties’ access to digital technology.


EFL-FADT, survey, EFA, CFA, access, COVID-19, digital technology

Full Text:



Ahn, D., Park, G., Baek, K. J., & Chung, S. I. (2007). Academic motivation, academic stress, and perceptions of academic performance in medical students. Korean Journal of Medical Education, 19(1), 59-71.

Akmaliyah, A., Karman, K., Rosyid Ridho, M., & Khomisah, K. (2020). Online-based teaching of Arabic translation in the era of Covid 19 pandemic restrictions. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 25(5), 13-22.

Alkahtani, S. A. (2011). EFL female faculty members’ beliefs about CALL use and integration in EFL instruction: The case of Saudi higher education. Journal of King Saud University-Languages and Translation, 23(2), 87-98.

Allo, M. D. G. (2020). Is the online learning good in the midst of Covid-19 Pandemic? The case of EFL learners. Jurnal Sinestesia, 10(1), 1-10.

Mailizar, Almanthari, S., Maulina, S., & Bruce, S. (2020). Secondary school mathematics teachers’ views on e-learning implementation barriers during the COVID-19 pandemic: The Case of Indonesia. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(7), 1-9.

Büchi, M., Festic, N., & Latzer, M. (2019). Digital overuse and subjective well-being in a digitized society. Social Media and Society, 5(4), 1-12.

Chen, M. P., Wang, L. C., Zou, D., Lin, S. Y., & Xie, H. (2019). Effects of caption and gender on junior high students’ EFL learning from iMap-enhanced contextualized learning. Computers & Education, 140, 103602.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Dasig Jr, D., & Pascua, S. (2016, March). Effects of digital learning objects in teaching realtime system. In Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 1488-1498). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

de Goeij, M. C., van Diepen, M., Jager, K. J., Tripepi, G., Zoccali, C., & Dekker, F. W. (2013). Multiple imputation: dealing with missing data. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 28(10), 2415-2420.

Dolan, J. E. (2016). Splicing the divide: A review of research on the evolving digital divide among K–12 students. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 48(1), 16-37.

Dong, Y., Chai, C. S., Sang, G. Y., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C. C. (2015). Exploring the profiles and interplays of pre-service and in-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in China. Educational Technology and Society, 18(1), 158-169.

Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education (6th Ed.). McGraw-Hill.

Goh, D., & Kale, U. (2016). The urban-rural gap: project-based learning with Web 2.0 among West Virginian teachers. Technology, Pedagogy, and Education, 25(3), 355-376.

Gries, P. H. (2005). Social psychology and the identity-conflict debate: Is a ‘China Threat’ inevitable? European Journal of International Relations, 11(2), 235-265.

Groves, R. M., Singer, E., Lepkowski, J. M., Heeringa, S. G., & Alwin, D. F. (2004). Survey methodology. In J. S. House, F. T. Juster, R. L. Kahn, H. Schuman & E. Singer (Eds.), Telescope on society: Survey research and social science (pp. 21-64). University of Michigan Press.

Habibi, A., Mukinin, A., Riyanto, Y., Prasohjo, L. D., Sulistiyo, U., Sofwan, M., & Saudagar, F. (2018). Building an online community: Student teachers’ perceptions on the advantages of using social networking services in a teacher education program. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 19(1), 46-61.

Habibi, A., Yusop, F. D., & Razak, R. A. (2020a). The dataset for validation of factors affecting pre-service teachers’ use of ICT during teaching practices: Indonesian context. Data in Brief, 28, 1-7.

Habibi, A., Yusop, F. D., & Razak, R. A. (2020b). The role of TPACK in affecting pre-service language teachers’ ICT integration during teaching practices: Indonesian context. Education and Information Technologies, 25, 1929-1949.

Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th Ed.). Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Hidayat, R., Habibi, A., Mohd Saad, M. R., Mukminin, A., & Idris, W. I. (2018). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of PERMA for Indonesian students in mathematics education programmes. Pedagogika, 132(4), 147-165.

Hsieh, J. S. C., Huang, Y. M., & Wu, W. C. V. (2017). Technological acceptance of LINE in flipped EFL oral training. Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 178-190.

Kerres, M. (2020). Against all odds: Education in Germany coping with Covid-19. Postdigital Science and Education, 2(3), 1-5.

Lisenbee, P. S., & Ford, C. M. (2017). Engaging students in traditional and digital storytelling to make connections between pedagogy and children’s experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46(1), 129-239.

Liu, M. (2013). Blended learning in a university EFL writing course: Description and evaluation. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 4(2), 301-309.

Liu, Q., Zhang, S., & Wang, Q. (2015). Surveying Chinese in-service K12 teachers’ technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 53(1), 55-74.

Lusk, B. (2010). Digital natives and social media behaviors: An overview. The Prevention Research, 17, 3-6.

Mei, B. (2019). Preparing preservice EFL teachers for CALL normalisation: A technology acceptance perspective. System, 83, 13-24.

Obaidullah, M., & Rahman, M. A. (2018). The impact of internet and social media on the habit of reading books: A case study in the southern region of Bangladesh. Studies in English Language and Education, 5(1), 25-39.

Pallant, J. (2011). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS 4th edition. McGraw-Hill Education.

Parasuraman, A., & Colby, C. L. (2015). An updated and streamlined technology readiness index: TRI 2.0. Journal of Service Research, 18(1), 59-74.

Peña-López, I. (2010). Framing the digital divide in higher education. RUSC Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, 7(1), 2-6.

Prasojo, L. D., Habibi, A., Yaakob, M. F. M., Pratama, R., Yusof, M. R., Mukminin, A., Suyanto, S., & Hanum, F. (2020a). Teachers’ burnout: A SEM analysis in an Asian context. Heliyon, 6(1), 1-5.

Prasojo, L. D., Habibi, A., Yaakob, M. F. M., Pratama, R., Yusof, M. R., Mukminin, A., Suyanto, & Hanum, F. (2020b). Dataset relating to the relationship between teacher self-concept and teacher efficacy as the predictors of burnout: A survey in Indonesian education. Data in Brief, 30(2020), 1-5.

Ramsetty, A., & Adams, C. (2020). Impact of the digital divide in the age of COVID-19. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 27(7), 1147-1148.

Riel, M. M., & Schwarz, J. (2002). School change with technology: Crossing the digital divide. Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual, 2002(1), 147-179.

Ritzhaupt, A. D., Poling, N., Frey, C., Kang, Y., & Johnson, M. (2016). A phenomenological study of games, simulations, and virtual environments courses. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 8(3), 59-73.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67.

Soomro, K. A., Kale, U., Curtis, R., Akcaoglu, M., & Bernstein, M. (2018). Development of an instrument to measure Faculty’s information and communication technology access (FICTA). Education and Information Technologies, 23(1), 253-269.

Tabri, N., & Elliott, C. M. (2012). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology, 1(1), 59-60.

Taubenberger, J. K., Kash, J. C., & Morens, D. M. (2019). The 1918 influenza pandemic: 100 years of questions answered and unanswered. Science Translational Medicine, 11(502), 1-15.

Triana, H. W., Wirman, E. P., Kustati, M., Reflinaldi, R., Rahmi, A., & Nelmawarni, N. (2020). Social practice on Facebook: Critical discourse analysis in the process of text production. Studies in English Language and Education, 7(1), 1-21.

van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (2005). The deepening divide: Inequality in the information society. Sage Publication.

van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (2006). Digital divide research, achievements, and shortcomings. Poetics, 34(4-5), 221-235.

Wang, C. J., Ng, C. Y., & Brook, R. H. (2020). Response to COVID-19 in Taiwan: Big data analytics, new technology, and proactive testing. Jama Network Open, 323(14), 1341-1342.

WHO names novel coronavirus as ‘COVID-19’. (2020, February 12). Channel News Asia.

Zuppa, L., & Rezzano, S. (2016). The construction of the role of the teachers in academic articles on ICT and education. International Journal of Language Studies, 10(3), 5-22.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View Journal Stats