Integrated language skill approach: Model of teaching materials for elementary school teacher education programs in Indonesia

Herlina Usman, Miftahulkhaerah Anwar


This study is aimed to develop teaching materials, which is an English module for Elementary School Teacher Education Programs in Indonesia based on the integrated language skill approach. A number of 75 respondents from the Elementary School Teacher Education Programs at three universities participated in this research, they are from Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha in Bali, Universitas Mulawarman in Samarinda, and Universitas Negeri Manado in Manado. At the Elementary School Teacher Education Programs, no book with a practical model of integrated language skill is available at these universities. In collecting and analyzing the data, this study combined the research and development (R&D) model of Gall et al. (2003). The process comprised four stages to develop this module, they are (1) preliminary studies and needs analysis, (2) product design and development, (3) evaluation, field test, and product revision, (4) and product refinement and dissemination. The data was gained through three instruments from questionnaires, interviews, and formative tests to measure the mastery of English teaching materials for primary school teacher education. The result of this study demonstrated that the module is feasible and effective for English Elementary School Teacher Education Programs at the three universities. 


Research and Development Model; English teaching material; integrated language skill approach

Full Text:



Alhaddad, A. S. (2014). Jordanian literacy education: Should whole language be implemented? European Scientific Journal, 10(8), 409-420.

Aljiffri, I. H. (2010). Effects of the integrated approach to teaching English and social studies on achievement in a Saudi private elementary school. Journal of Education & Psychological Sciences, 11(4), 12-31.

Ausubel, D. P. (1968). Educational psychology: A cognitive view. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Bastías, M., Elena, E., Sepúlveda, R., Carolina, A. N. A., Muñoz, S., Lorena, M., & Oxford. (2011). Integration of the Four Skills of the English Language and Its Influence on the Performance of Second Grade High School. The Seminar to Choose the Professor of Education, 38. Retrieved fromñoz_Bastías_Elizabeth.pdf

Aydoğan, H., & Akbarov, A. A. (2014). The four basic language skills, whole language & integrated skill approach in mainstream university classrooms in Turkey. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(9), 672-680.

Brown, H. D., & Lee, H. (2015). Teaching by principles (4th ed.). Pearson Education.

Coyle, D., Hood, P., & Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning. Cambridge University Press.

de Sousa, A. T. O., Formiga, N. S., Oliveira, S. H. S., Costa, M. M. L., & Soares, M. J. G. O. (2015). Using the theory of meaningful learning in nursing education. Brazilian Journal of Nursing, 68(4), 626-635.

Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (2003). Educational research: An introduction. Pearson Education.

Goodman, K. S. (2005). What's whole in whole language: 20th anniversary edition. RDR Books.

Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. l. (1991). English for specific purposes: A learning centred approach. Cambridge University Press.

Kumar, S. E., & Nazneen, S. (2016). A literature review of the theories of learning and varieties of learning with emphasis on second language acquisition. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 5(6), 309-315.

Lake, C. (1994). Integrated curriculum: School improvement research series. Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI).

Lin, S.-F., Chang, W. H-., & Cheng, Y.-J. (2011). The perceived usefulness of teachers’ guides for science teachers. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9, 1367-1389.

McDonough, J, Shaw., C., & Masuhara, H. (2013). Materials and methods in ELT: A teacher’s guide (3rd ed). Wiley-Blackwell.

Rahman, S. M. S., & Akhter, A. (2017). Skills teaching in ESL classroom: Discrete vs. integrated. International Journal of English Language Teaching, 5(4), 32-39.

Richards, J. C. (2017). Curriculum development in language teaching (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Routman, R. (1991). Invitations: Changing as teachers and learners K-12. Heinemann.

Sadiku, L. M. (2015). The importance of four skills reading, speaking, writing, listening in a lesson hour. European Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 1(1), 29-31.

Sakhiyya, Z., Agustien, H. I. R., & Pratama, H. (2018). The reconceptualisation of knowledge base in the pre-service teacher education curriculum: Towards ELF pedagogy. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(1), 49-56.

Shoemaker, B. J. E. (1989). Integrative education: A curriculum for the twenty-first century. OSSC Bulletin, 33(2), 2-19.

Sitepu, B., P. (2010, September 11). Keterbacaan [Readability]. Bintang Sitepu.

Suhendi, A., & Purwarno. (2018). Constructivist learning theory: The contribution to foreign language learning and teaching. In Purwarno, M. Manugeren, A. Suhendi, P. Siwi, & S. Ekalestari (Eds.), 1st Annual International Conference on Language and Literature (pp. 87-95). KnE Social Sciences.

Usman, H., Lestari, I., & Pelenkahu, N. (2020). English e-book for elementary school students: Research by design based on whole language approach. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 397, 735-741.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View Journal Stats