ELT lecturers’ communicative language teaching approach in directing students’ emotions in distance learning

I Ketut Wardana, Putu Ayu Paramita Dharmayanti, Anak Agung Putu Arsana


The study investigated whether, and how, Communicative Language Teaching Approaches (CLTA) significantly influenced students’ academic emotions and achievement in self-directed distance learning. The participants were 76 university students in Denpasar. The data were collected through exam results and two questionnaires. Questionnaire A measured students’ learning intentions, self-encouragement, and motivation, while questionnaire B was the DASS 21. Pearson Correlation was used to analyze the effect of CLTA on student learning intention and performance, and their perception of depression, anxiety, and stress. Descriptive analysis was also performed to examine the students’ levels of negative emotions toward their academic experience. The quantitative results showed a significantly positive correlation between lecturers’ content-based instruction (CBI) and learning intention, rob (0.536) > rcv (0.226); lecturers’ communicative language teaching (CLT) correlated positively with learning encouragement, rob (0.655)> rcv (0.226); and lecturers’ task-based language teaching (TBLT) correlated positively with motivation, rob (0.671)> rcv (0.226). This means that the CLTA strategy strongly and positively encouraged students to study and decreased the students' experiences of negative emotions. The study revealed that the more intensively the CLTA is applied, the fewer students feel depressed, and the better the students’ achievement is. The study suggests that CLTA activates affective, cognitive, and conative norms even in online learning environments.


Communicative Language Teaching Approaches; emotional norms; teaching strategy; TEFL achievement

Full Text:



Aronoff, N., Stellrecht, E., Lyons, A. G., Zafron, M. L., Glogowski, M., Grabowski, J., & Ohtake, P. J. (2017). Teaching evidence-based practice principles to prepare health professions students for an interprofessional learning experience. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 105(4), 376–384. http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/JMLA.2017.179

Ashraf, G. A., Ghonsooly, B., & Hosseini Fatemi, A. (2018). The impact of Task-Based Instruction on the enhancement of Iranian‎ intermediate EFL learners’ speaking skill and emotional intelligence. Applied Research on English Language, 7(2), 195–214. https://doi.org/10.22108/ARE.2018.109441.1240

Bar-On, R. E., & Parker, J. D. A. (2000). The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace. Jossey-Bass.

Barbalet, J. (2002). Introduction: Why emotions are crucial. The Sociological Review, 50, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2002.tb03588.x

Bax, S. (2003). The end of CLT: A context approach to language teaching. ELT Journal, 57(3), 278–287. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/57.3.278

Boon, H. J. (2011). Raising the bar: Ethics education for quality teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(7), 76-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2011v36n7.2

Bungin, B. (2003). Metodologi penelitian kualitatif [Qualitative research method] (2nd ed.). PT. Radja Grafindo Persada.

Canals, L. (2020). The effects of virtual exchanges on oral skills and motivation. Language Learning & Technology, 24(3), 103–119. http://hdl.handle.net/10125/44742

Coutinho, S. A., & Neuman, G. (2008). A model of metacognition, achievement goal orientation, learning style and self-efficacy. Learning Environments Research, 11(2), 131–151. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1007/s10984-008-9042-7

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. (2003). Research design. Sage Publications.

Davies, S. (2003). Content-based instruction in EFL contexts. The Internet TESL Journal, 9(2), 9–17. http://iteslj.org/Articles/Davies-CBI.html

Dusenbury, L., Calin, S., Domitrovich, C., & Weissberg, R. P. (2015). What does evidence-based instruction in social and emotional learning actually look like in practice? A brief on findings from CASEL’s program reviews. CASEL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2009). Task-based language teaching: Sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 221-246. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2009.00231.x

Engel, B. (2015). It wasn’t your fault: Freeing yourself from the shame of childhood abuse with the power of self-compassion. New Harbinger Publications.

Farooq, M. U. (2015). Creating a communicative language teaching environment for improving students’ communicative competence at EFL/EAP university level. International Education Studies, 8(4), 179–191. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v8n4p179

Ferreira, M., Cardoso, A. P., & Abrantes, J. L. (2011). Motivation and relationship of the student with the school as factors involved in the perceived learning. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1707–1714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.416

Finkelstein, N. (2005). Learning physics in context: A study of student learning about electricity and magnetism. International Journal of Science Education, 27(10), 1187–1209. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690500069491

Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 300–319. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.300

Goleman, D. (2012). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. Bantam.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

Hromova, N. (2019). Students’ perceptions and motivation for learning foreign languages. Advanced Education, 11, 76-83. https://doi.org/10.20535/2410-8286.159810

Intarapanich, C. (2013). Teaching methods, approaches and strategies found in EFL classrooms: A case study in Lao PDR. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 88, 306–311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.510

Joo, K. P., Andrés, C., & Shearer, R. (2014). Promoting distance learners’ cognitive engagement and learning outcomes: Design-based research in the Costa Rican National University of Distance Education. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(6), 188–210. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v15i6.1908

Khalil, R., Mansour, A. E., Fadda, W. A., Almisnid, K., Aldamegh, M., Al-Nafeesah, A., Alkhalifah, A., & Al-Wutayd, O. (2020). The sudden transition to synchronized online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study exploring medical students’ perspectives. BMC Medical Education, 20(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02208-z

Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33(3), 335–343. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-u

MacCann, C., Jiang, Y., Brown, L. E. R., Double, K. S., Bucich, M., & Minbashian, A. (2020). Emotional intelligence predicts academic performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 146(2), 150–186. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000219

Mahyoob, M. (2020). Challenges of e-Learning during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced by EFL learners. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), 11(4), 351-362. https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej

Milarisa, S. (2019). The effectiveness of Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT) toward ESP students’ writing achievement. English Language in Focus (ELIF), 1(2), 121–126. https://doi.org/10.24853/elif.1.2.121-126

Morales-Rodríguez, F. M. (2021). Fear, stress, resilience and coping strategies during COVID-19 in Spanish university students. Sustainability, 13(11), 5824. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115824

Nadezhda, G. (2020). Zoom technology as an effective tool for distance learning in teaching English to medical students. Sciences and Practices, 6(5), 457–460.

Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students’ self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37(2), 91–105. https://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3702_4

Prasetyaningrum, D. I. (2018, April 25-26). Students’ responses to Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) implementation [Paper presentation]. The First International Conference on Teacher Training and Education, Malang, Indonesia.

Rahimpour, M., Ajideh, P., Amini, D., & Farrokhi, F. (2013). The effect of task-related emotional and cognitive involvement on incidental acquisition of second language vocabulary. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 2(2), 193–203. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.2n.2p.193

Rahmawati, Y. (2019). Teachers’ voices on the challenges of the implementation of communicative approach in regards to the 2013 curriculum. Indonesian Journal of English Education, 6(1), 65-78. https://doi.org/10.15408/ijee.v6i1.12761

Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Sahile, A. T., Ababu, M., Alemayehu, S., Abebe, H., Endazenew, G., Wubshet, M., & Tadesse, T. (2020). Prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and stress during pandemic of COVID-19 among college students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2020: A cross sectional survey. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medical Sciences, 6(6), 126. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijcems.20200606.13

Sáiz Manzanares, M. C., Marticorena Sánchez, R., García Osorio, C. I., & Díez-Pastor, J. F. (2017). How do B-learning and learning patterns influence learning outcomes? Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 745. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00745

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185–211. https://doi.org/10.2190/DUGG-P24E-52WK-6CDG

Sato, K., & Kleinsasser, R. C. (1999). Communicative Language Teaching (CLT): Practical understanding. The Modern Language Journal, 83(4), 494-517. https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00037

Strahan, D. B., & Poteat, B. (2020). Middle level students’ perceptions of their social and emotional learning: An exploratory study. RMLE Online, 43(5), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/19404476.2020.1747139

Suadi, S. (2021). Students’ perceptions of the use of Zoom and WhatsApp in ELT amidst Covid19 pandemic. Study of Applied Linguistics and English Education, 2(1), 51–64. https://doi.org/10.35961/salee.v2i01.212

Syahdan, S., Herlinawati, H., & Marwa, M. (2021). Learning media and strategies used by english students in practice teaching during the pandemic. ETERNAL (English Teaching Journal), 12(2), 107–116. https://doi.org/10.17323/jle.2021.12624

van der Zwaard, R., & Bannink, A. (2016). Nonoccurrence of negotiation of meaning in task-based synchronous computer-mediated communication. The Modern Language Journal, 100(3), 625–640. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12341

Vorobel, O., & Kim, D. (2012). Language teaching at a distance: An overview of research. Calico Journal, 29(3), 548–562.

Wardana, I. K., Astuti, P. S., & Sukanadi, N. L. (2020). Sikap belajar dan kemahiran Bahasa Inggris karyawan Mexicola melalui Pelatihan Berbasis Pelibatan Terpadu [Mexicola employees’ learning attitudes and English proficiency through Integrated Engagement-based Training]. Jurnal Bakti Saraswati: Media Publikasi Penelitian dan Penerapan Ipteks, 9(1), 78–102.

Wu, K. (2010). The relationship between language learners’ anxiety and learning strategy in the CLT classrooms. International Education Studies, 3(1), 174–191. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v3n1p174

Xiaoyun, J. I. A. (2021). The implementation of CBI in teaching comprehensive English. Sino-US English Teaching, 18(9), 246–249. https://doi.org/10.17265/1539-8072/2021.09.001

Yang, X., Zhang, M., Kong, L., Wang, Q., & Hong, J.-C. (2021). The effects of scientific self-efficacy and cognitive anxiety on science engagement with the “question-observation-doing-explanation” model during school disruption in COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 30(3), 380–393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-020-09877-x

Yikealo, D., Yemane, B., & Karvinen, I. (2018). The level of academic and environmental stress among college students: a case in the college of education. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 6(11), 40-57. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2018.611004

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v9i3.24830

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View Journal Stats