Improving reading comprehension through Reciprocal Teaching Method

Endang Komariah, Putri Ace Riaula Ramadhona, Tengku Maya Silviyanti


This study is aimed at discovering the benefits of the Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM) in the reading classroom, finding out the achievements of students after four comprehension training sessions of using RTM, and exploring the perceptions of students on the use of RTM. This method uses four comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing, to help learners monitor their development of reading comprehension by themselves. Students work in groups of four or five and the members are divided into five roles which are the leader, predictor, clarifier, questioner, and summarizer. The subjects were 24 students from the twelfth grade at a high school in Banda Aceh. Observations, tests, documents and interviews were collected to get the data. The results showed that the students were more active and productive in the reading classroom after RTM sessions and their reading proficiency improved. They learnt how to apply several of the strategies from RTM while reading. The results also showed that they preferred this method for teaching-learning reading compared to the conventional one. Therefore, teachers are suggested to consider using this method for teaching reading that instils the students on how to apply the four comprehension strategies used in reading.


reading comprehension; students’ performance; Reciprocal Teaching Method

Full Text:



Blazer, C. (2007). Reciprocal teaching. Research Services of Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 6(9): 1-15.

Brown, A. L., & Palinscar, A. S. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2): 117-175.

Carlisle, J. F., & Rice, M. S. (2002). Improving reading comprehension: Research- based – principles and practices. Baltimore: York Press.

Choo, T. O. L, Eng, T. K., & Ahmad, N. (2011). Effects of reciprocal teaching strategies on reading comprehension. The Reading Matrix, 11(2): 140-149.

Clark, L. (2003). Reciprocal teaching strategy and adult high school students. (Master’s Thesis). Union, NJ, Kean University. Retrieved April, 4th 2014 from:

Djiwandono, M.S. (1996). Tes bahasa dalam pengajaran. Bandung: ITB Bandung.

Dresing, T, Pehl, T., & Schmieder, C. (2015). Manual (on) transcription: Transcription conventions, software guides and practical hints for qualitative researchers, 3rd English ed. Marburg. Retrieved June 12, 2015 from:

Feuerstein, T., & Schcolnik, M. (1995). Enhancing reading comprehension in the language learning classroom. San Francisco, CA: Alta Book Center.

FORPD (Florida Online Reading Professional Development) (2015). Reciprocal Teaching Worksheet. Retrieved April 13, 2015 from:

Freihat, S. & Makhzoomi, K. A. (2012). The effect of the Reciprocal Teaching Procedure (RTP) on enhancing EFL students’ reading comprehension behavior in a university setting. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(5): 279-291.

Hosenfeld, C., Cavour, I., Bonk, D., Baker, L., & Alcorn, M. (1993). Activities and materials for implementing adapted versions of reciprocal teaching in beginning, intermediate, and advanced levels of instruction in English, Spanish, and French as a second/foreign language. State University of New York at Buffalo.

Jafarigohar, M., & Soelaimani, H. (2013).The effects of reciprocal teaching vs. think-aloud on reading comprehension of pre-intermediate students in Iran. International Journal of English and Education, 2(1): 191-202.

Jeffries, L., & Mikulecky, B. S. (2007). Advanced reading power. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.

Khezrlou, S. (2012). The relationship between cognitive and metacognitive strategies, age and level of education. The Reading Matrix, 12(1): 50-61.

Mickulecky, B. S., & Jeffries, L. (1996). More reading power. New York: Addison-Wesley Longman.

National Behavior Support Service. (n.d). Reading and Learning Strategy: Before, During & After Reading Strategy. Retrieved June 3, 2014 from:

Palinscar, A. S. & Brown, A. L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension fostering and comprehension - monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2): 117-175.

Pang, E. S., Muaka, A., Bernhardt, E. B. & Kamil, M. L. (2003). Teaching reading. Geneva: IBE, Publications Unit.

Quirk, P. J. (2010). Using Reciprocal and Learning Methods to Enhance Comprehension in Mathematics Word Problems. (Master’s Thesis). Palmerston North, Massey University. Retrieved on April, 4th 2014, from

Rosenberger, A. (2011). Reciprocal Teaching and Its Effect on Inference Skills to Enhance Reading Comprehension. (Master’s Thesis). Glassboro, NJ, Rowan University. Retrieved on August 22, 2014 from

Rubin, J., & Thompson, I. (1994). How to be a more successful language learner: Toward learner autonomy. Boston: Heinle &Heinle.

Snow, C. E. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward a research and development program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Education

Spivey, N., R. & Cuthbert, A. (2006). Reciprocal teaching of lecture comprehension skills in college students. Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 6(2): 66-83.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View Journal Stats