Implementing double-entry journal assisted with Instagram to foster engagement in EFL writing

Radina Anggun Nurisma, Wahyu Indah Mala Rohmana, Titik Lina Widyaningsih, Bambang Yudi Cahyono


Student engagement has critical impacts on students to excel academically. Integrating social media in a classroom can potentially affect students’ engagement. The present study aims to examine student engagement in EFL writing using Double-Entry Journal (DEJ) on Instagram, to examine the correlation between cognitive engagement and achievement, and to reveal the challenges in implementing DEJ. The researchers employed a mixed-method design, involving 42 undergraduate students from the English Department of one of the state universities in Indonesia, and obtained the data through questionnaires, writing portfolios, and Instagram documentation. The close-ended and open-ended questionnaires were distributed to the students, whereas writing portfolios and Instagram documentation were observed to examine the students’ writing performance. The collected data were managed, classified, and analyzed. The findings reveal that the students are behaviorally, cognitively, and affectively engaged by DEJ assisted with Instagram.’ There was a positive correlation between cognitive engagement and writing achievement. Yet, challenges had been found, including lack of interaction, student anxiety, and insufficient knowledge during the learning process. The challenges are lessened when teachers and peers offer support with DEJ. The results provide pedagogical implications for teachers to employ instructional strategies that promote engagement in all three dimensions, behaviorally, cognitively, and affectively to attain the students’ outcomes.


Double-Entry Journal; EFL writing; Instagram; learning technology; student engagement

Full Text:



Alghamdi, G. M. A. (2022). Investigating the effect and students’ perceptions of using Instagram as a writing teaching tool in Saudi EFL classrooms. English Language Teaching, 15(8), 46-54.

Amin, B. (2012). Double entry journal technique for the students’ reading comprehension. Exposure: Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris, 1(1), 25-34.

Anggraeni, C. W. (2017). Students’ perspectives toward the use of Instagram in writing class. In A. K. B. S. Khan, I. Yuliasri, C. S. Ee, & D. Darwis (Eds.), 1st English Language and Literature International Conference (ELLiC) Proceedings (pp. 68-74). Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang.

Brown, H. D. (2007). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed.). Longman.

Byrne, D. (1997). Teaching writing skills. Longman.

Christenson, S. L., Reschly, A. L., & Wylie, C. (Eds.). (2012). Handbook of research on student engagement. Springer.

Cobine, G. R. (1996). Teaching expressive writing. ERIC Digest.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (5th ed.). Sage Publication.

Ding, L., Er, E., & Orey, M. (2018). An exploratory study of student engagement in gamified online discussions. Computers and Education, 120(1), 213-226.

Elola, I., & Oskoz, A. (2017). Writing with 21st century social tools in the L2 classroom: New literacies, genres, and writing practices. Journal of Second Language Writing, 36(1), 52-60.

Ezzy, D. (2002). Qualitative analysis (1st ed.). Routledge.

Feurerstein, R. (1996). Mediated learning in and out of the classroom. Pearson Education, Inc.

Fithriani, R., & Alharbi, M. A. (2021). The adoption of Edmodo in a hybrid EFL writing class: What do Indonesian students and lecturers say? Asian EFL Journal, 28(2.3), 38-60.

Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59-109.

French, A., & Worsley, J. (2009). Double-entry journals: Developing an embedded programme of writing development for first year Early Childhood Studies degree students. Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences, 2(2), 1-26.

Greene, B. A., Miller, R. B., Crowson, H. M., Duke, B. L., & Akey, K. L. (2004). Predicting high school students’ cognitive engagement and achievement: Contributions of classroom perceptions and motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29(4), 462–482.

Guthrie, J., & Wigfield, A. (2000). Engagement and motivation in reading. In P. D. M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, & & R. B. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3, pp. 403-422). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hart, S. R., Stewart, K., & Jimerson, S. R. (2011). The student engagement in schools questionnaire (SESQ) and the teacher engagement report form-new (TERF-N): Examining the preliminary evidence. Contemporary School Psychology, 15(1), 67-79.

Joyce, M. (1997, October). Double-entry journals and learning logs (Archived 2008, May 12). Maine Educational Media Association.

Khairani, D., Petrus, I., & Sitinjak, D. (2016). Using double entry journals to improve reading comprehension and descriptive writing achievements. In D. Stiawan & P. Putra (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd Sriwijaya University Learning and Education International Conference (SULE-IC) (pp 221-242). Universitas Sriwijaya.

Koranteng, F. N., Wiafe, I., & Kuada, E. (2018). An empirical study of the relationship between social networking sites and students’ engagement in higher education. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(5), 1131-1159.

Lee, J., Song, H. D., & Hong, A. J. (2019). Exploring factors, and indicators for measuring students’ sustainable engagement in e-learning. Sustainability, 11(4), 985.

Lei, H., Cui, Y., & Zhou, W. (2018). Relationships between student engagement and academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 46(3), 517-528.

Levy, M., & Moore, P. J. (2018). Qualitative research in CALL. Language Learning & Technology, 22(2), 1-7.

Lewis, A. D., Huebner, E. S., Malone, P. S., & Valois, R. (2011). Life satisfaction and student engagement in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(3), 249-262.

Mao, J. (2014). Social media for learning: A mixed methods study on high school students’ technology affordances and perspectives. Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 213-223.

Oktaviana, F., Nuraida, I., Rohiyatussakinah, I., & Kurnianingsih. (2020). The relationship between self-esteem and social media Instagram toward writing skill of EFL learners. In A. Djohar, A. G. Abdullah, S. Vaidyanathan, C.-H. Lien, Y. Maryani, M. Komaro, & Mujiarto (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st International Multidisciplinary Conference on Education, Technology, and Engineering (IMCETE 2019) (pp. 113-115). Atlantis Press.

Oraif, I., & Elyas, T. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on learning: Investigating EFL learners’ engagement in online courses in Saudi Arabia. Education Sciences, 11(3), 99.

Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2019). The rise of social media. Our World in Data.

Pietarinen, J., Soini, T., & Pyhältö, K. (2014). Students’ emotional and cognitive engagement as the determinants of well-being and achievement in school. International Journal of Educational Research, 67, 40-51.

Prasetyawati, O. A., & Ardi, P. (2020). Integrating Instagram into EFL writing to foster student engagement. Teaching English with Technology, 20(3), 40-62.

Rahmati, J., Izadpanah, S., & Shahnavaz, A. (2021). A meta-analysis on educational technology in English language teaching. Language Testing in Asia, 11, Article7.

Reinders, H., & Benson, P. (2017). Research agenda: Language learning beyond the classroom. Language Teaching, 50(4), 561-578.

Riduwan, R., & Akdon, A. (2020). Rumus dan data dalam analisis statistika [Formula and data in Mathematical analysis] (7th ed.). Alfabeta.

Saeed, M. A., Ghazali, K., Sahuri, S. S., & Abdulrab, M. (2018). Engaging EFL learners in online peer feedback on writing: What does it tell us? Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 17, 39-61.

Safdari, M. (2021). Contributions of Edmodo social learning network to Iranian EFL learners’ writing accuracy. CALL-EJ, 22(1), 355-373.

Sarma, D., & Rosa, R. N. (2014). Teaching writing a descriptive text by using double entry diary to junior high school students. Journal of English Language Teaching, 3(1), 116-122.

Spaventa, S. (2000). Essay writing. Cambridge University Press.

Sulis, G. (2022). Engagement in the foreign language classroom: Micro and macro perspectives. System, 110, 102902.

Tuan, L. T. (2010). Enhancing EFL learners’ writing skill via journal writing. English Language Teaching, 3(3), 81-88.

Vetter, M. A., McDowell, Z. J., & Stewart, M. (2019). From opportunities to outcomes: The Wikipedia-based writing assignment. Computers and Composition, 52, 53-64.

Webb, N. M., & Palincsar, A. S. (1996). Group processes in the classroom. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 841-873). Prentice Hall International.

Zhang, M., Gibbons, J., & Li, M. (2021). Computer-mediated collaborative writing in L2 classrooms: A systematic review. Journal of Second Language Writing, 54(8), 100854.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View Journal Stats