Exploring English lecturers’ self-efficacy in the use of educational technology in post COVID-19 pandemic

Eva Nikmatul Rabbianty, Diana Nur Utami, Mega Fariziah Nur Humairoh, Nunung Suryati


This study examines the levels of self-efficacy and factors influencing the self-efficacy on the use of educational technology among English lecturers in Islamic higher education institutions in East Java, Indonesia, in the post-COVID-19 pandemic. There are two research questions addressed: 1) What levels of self-efficacy do the lecturers exhibit on the pedagogical skills and actual use of educational technology in the post–COVID–19 pandemic? 2) What factors influence the lecturers’ self-efficacy on the use of educational technology in the post–COVID–19 pandemic? Utilizing a survey research design, data were collected using an adapted version of the Professional Self-Efficacy Scale for Information and Communication Technology Teachers (PSES) questionnaire. The data from 37 participants were then analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result showed that the lecturers’ self-efficacy in their pedagogical skills and the actual use of educational technology was moderate, and they will continue integrating educational technology in their classrooms in the post–COVID–19 era. Moreover, the qualitative data indicated that the lecturers had moderate skills in using technology with limited educational technology tools. Age, gender, qualifications, and teaching experience emerged as factors influencing the lecturers’ self-efficacy on the use of educational technology in classrooms. The findings highlighted the need for English lecturers in Islamic higher education institutions to broaden their skills in using educational technology for learning. Policymakers need to design appropriate strategies to enhance lecturers’ pedagogical practices in using educational technology for online learning to ensure effective and efficient teaching in the post-COVID-19 pandemic.


educational technology; English lecturers; higher education; Indonesia; post COVID-19 pandemic; self-efficacy

Full Text:



Al‐Mamary, Y. H., Abdulrab, M., Jazim, F., Khan, I., & Al‐Ghurbani, A. M. (2022). Factors influencing the use of technology in higher education in Saudi Arabia: A conceptual framework and future research directions. Journal of Public Affairs, 22(4), e2683. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.2683

Almekhlafi, A. G., & Almeqdadi, F. A. (2010). Teachers’ perceptions of technology integration in the United Arab Emirates School classrooms. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 13(1), 165–175.

Bajaj, P., Khan, A., Tabash, M. I., & Anagreh, S. (2021). Teachers’ intention to continue the use of online teaching tools in post-COVID-19. Cogent Education, 8(1), 2002130. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2021.2002130

Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge University Press.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. W. H. Freeman and Company.

Bandura, A. (2006). Toward a psychology of human agency. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(2), 95-180. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00011.x

Banoglu, K., Vanderlinde, R., & Yildiz, R. (2015). Professional self-efficacy scale for information and computer technology teachers: Validity and reliability study. The Anthropologist, 20(1-2), 22-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2015.11891720

Baroudi, S., Hojeij, Z., Meda, L., & Lottin, J. (2022). Examining elementary preservice teachers’ self-efficacy and satisfaction in online teaching during virtual field experience. Cogent Education, 9(1), 2133497. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2022.2133497

Boonmoh, A., Jumpakate, T., & Karpklon, S. (2021). Teachers’ perceptions and experience in using technology in the classroom. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal, 22(1), 1-24.

Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C. C. (2013). A review of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 16(2), 31-51.

Choi, B., & Young, M. F. (2021). TPACK-L: Teachers’ pedagogical design thinking for the wise integration of technology. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 30(2), 217-234. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2021.1906312

Christopoulos, A., & Sprangers, P. (2021). Integration of educational technology during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An analysis of teacher and student receptions. Cogent Education, 8(1), 1964690. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2021.1964690

Cutri, R. M., Mena, J., & Whiting, E. F. (2020). Faculty readiness for online crisis teaching: Transitioning to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 523-541. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2020.1815702

Dennen, V. P. (2008). Pedagogical lurking: Student engagement in non-posting discussion behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(4), 1624-1633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2007.06.003

Dhawan, S. (2020). Online learning: A panacea in the time of COVID-19 crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49(1), 5-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047239520934018

Dumont, G., Ni, A. Y., Van Wart, M., Beck, C., & Pei, H. (2021). The effect of the COVID pandemic on faculty adoption of online teaching: Reduced resistance but strong persistent concerns. Cogent Education, 8(1), 1976928. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2021.1976928

Durndell, A., Haag, Z., & Laithwaite, H. (2000). Computer self-efficacy and gender: A cross-cultural study of Scotland and Romania. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(6), 1037-1044. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00155-5

Farkhani, Z. A., Badiei, G., & Rostami, F. (2022). Investigating the teacher’s perceptions of classroom management and teaching self-efficacy during the COVID-19 pandemic in the online EFL courses. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 7, Article 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40862-022-00152-7

Gbemu, L. A., Sarfo, F. K., Adentwi, K. I., & Aklassu-Ganan, E. K. K. (2020). Teacher educators’ self-efficacy beliefs and actual use of ICTs in teaching in the Kumasi Metropolis. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology - TOJET, 19(2), 13-23.

Greenhow, C., Lewin, C., & Willet, K. B. (2021). The educational response to COVID-19 across two countries: A critical examination of initial digital pedagogy adoption. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 30(1), 7-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2020.1866654

Gümüş, M. M., & Kukul, V. (2022). Developing a digital competence scale for teachers: Validity and reliability study. Education and Information Technologies, 28(3), 2747-2765. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-022-11213-2

Hanham, J., Lee, C. B., & Teo, T. (2021). The influence of technology acceptance, academic self-efficacy, and gender on academic achievement through online tutoring. Computers & Education, 172, 104252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2021.104252

Hatlevik, O. E. (2017). Examining the relationship between teachers’ self-efficacy, their digital competence, strategies to evaluate information and use of ICT at school. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 61(5), 555-567. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2016.1172501

Hatlevik, O. E., & Bjarnø, V. (2021). Examining the relationship between resilience to digital distractions, ICT self-efficacy, motivation, approaches to studying, and time spent on individual studies. Teaching and Teacher Education, 102, 103326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2021.103326

Horvitz, B. S., Beach, A. L., Anderson, M. L., & Xia, J. (2015). Examination of faculty self-efficacy related to online teaching. Innovative Higher Education, 40(4), 305–316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-014-9316-1

Joo, Y. J., Park, S., & Lim, E. (2018). Factors influencing preservice teachers’ intention to use technology: TPACK, teacher self-efficacy, and technology acceptance Model. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 21(3), 48-59.

Kebritchi, M., Lipschuetz, A., & Santiague, L. (2017). Issues and challenges for teaching successful online courses in higher education: A literature review. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 46(1), 4-9. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047239516661713

Khan, M., Parvaiz, G. S., Bashir, N., Imtiaz, S., & Bae, J. (2022). Students’ key determinant structure towards educational technology acceptance at universities, during COVID-19 lockdown: Pakistani perspective. Cogent Education, 9(1), 2039088. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2022.2039088

Klimova, B., & Pikhart, M. (2022). Application of corrective feedback using emerging technologies among L2 university students. Cogent Education, 9(1), 2132681. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2022.2132681

Krause, M., Pietzner, V., Dori, Y. J., & Eilks, I. (2017). Differences and developments in attitudes and self-efficacy of prospective chemistry teachers concerning the use of ICT in education. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(8), 4405-4417. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2017.00935a

Kusuma, I. (2022). EFL preservice teachers’ technology integration in managing and teaching speaking skills during emergency remote teaching. Profile Issues in Teachers Professional Development, 24(2), 149-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/profile.v24n2.97497

Kusuma, I. P. I (2021). TPACK-related programs for pre-service English teachers: An in-depth analysis on efforts and issues of ICT integration. Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan, 40(1), 183-195. https://doi.org/10.21831/cp.v40i1.28820

Lailiyah, M., & Cahyono, B. (2017). Indonesian EFL teachers’ Self-Efficacy towards Technology Integration (SETI) and their use of technology in EFL teaching. Studies in English Language Teaching, 5(2), 344-357. https://doi.org/10.22158/selt.v5n2p344

Martin, F., Xie, K., & Bolliger, D. U. (2022). Engaging learners in the emergency transition to online learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 54(1), S1-S13. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2021.1991703

Petko, D., Prasse, D., & Cantieni, A. (2018). The interplay of school readiness and teacher readiness for educational technology integration: A structural equation model. Computers in the Schools, 35(1), 1118. https://doi.org/10.1080/07380569.2018.1428007

Poulou, M. S., Reddy, L. A., & Dudek, C. M. (2019). Relation of teacher self-efficacy and classroom practices: A preliminary investigation. School Psychology International, 40(1), 25-48. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034318798045

Rapanta, C., Botturi, L., Goodyear, P., Guàrdia, L., & Koole, M. (2021). Balancing technology, pedagogy and the new normal: Post-pandemic challenges for higher education. Postdigital Science and Education, 3(3), 715-742. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42438-021-00249-1

Rayuwati, R. (2020). How educational technology innovates distance learning during the pandemic crisis in remote areas in Indonesia? International Research Journal of Management, IT and Social Sciences, 7(6), 161-166. https://doi.org/10.21744/irjmis.v7n6.1032

Raza, S. A., Qazi, W., Khan, K. A., & Salam, J. (2021). Social isolation and acceptance of the Learning Management System (LMS) in the time of COVID-19 pandemic: An expansion of the UTAUT model. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 59(2), 183-208. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633120960421

Romero-Hall, E., & Cherrez, N. (2022). Teaching in times of disruption: Faculty digital literacy in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 60(2), 152-162. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2022.2030782

Roussinos, D., & Jimoyiannis, A. (2019). Examining primary education teachers’ perceptions of TPACK and the related educational context factors. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 51(4), 377-397. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2019.1666323

Šabić, J., Baranović, B., & Rogošić, S. (2022). Teachers’ self-efficacy for using information and communication technology: The interaction effect of gender and age. Informatics in Education, 21(2), 353-373. https://doi.org/10.15388/infedu.2022.11

Scherer, R., & Siddiq, F. (2015). Revisiting teachers’ computer self-efficacy: A differentiated view on gender differences. Computers in Human Behavior, 53, 48-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.06.038

Schindler, L. A., Burkholder, G. J., Morad, O. A., & Marsh, C. (2017). Computer-based technology and student engagement: A critical review of the literature. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 14, Article 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-017-0063-0

Şen, N., & Durak, Y. H. (2022). Examining the relationships between English teachers’ lifelong learning tendencies with professional competencies and technology integrating self-efficacy. Education and Information Technologies, 27, 5953-5988. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10867-8

Shi, L., & Jiang, L. (2022). How EFL teachers perceive and self-evaluate the knowledge components in forming Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). English Language Teaching Educational Journal, 5(1), 1-15.

Silviyanti, T. M., & Yusuf, Y. Q. (2015). EFL teachers’ perceptions on using ICT in their teaching: To use or to reject? Teaching English with Technology, 15(4), 29-43.

Skantz-Åberg, E., Lantz-Andersson, A., Lundin, M., & Williams, P. (2022). Teachers’ professional digital competence: An overview of conceptualisations in the literature. Cogent Education, 9(1), 2063224, https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2022.2063224

Stein, J., & Lajmi, L. (2019). The impact of self-efficacy and gender on computer performance. In C. Stephanidis & M. Antona (Eds.), HCI International 2019 – Late Breaking Posters (pp. 119-125). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30712-7_16

Sun, P. P., & Mei, B. (2022). Modeling preservice Chinese-as-a-second/foreign-language teachers’ adoption of educational technology: A technology acceptance perspective. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 35(4), 816-839. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2020.1750430

Syafi’i, A., & Anam, S. (2022). Measuring Indonesian EFL teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge in the post-pandemic. Premise: Journal of English Education and Applied Linguistics, 11(3), 402-418. https://doi.org/10.24127/pj.v11i3.4574

Topping, K. J. (2021). Digital peer assessment in school teacher education and development: A systematic review. Research Papers in Education, 38(3), 472-498. https://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2021.1961301

Undheim, M. (2022). Children and teachers engaging together with digital technology in early childhood education and care institutions: A literature review. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 30(3), 472-489. https://doi.org/10.1080/1350293X.2021.1971730

Vaskov, M., Isakov, A., Bilovus, V., Bulavkin, A., & Mikhaylenko, N. (2021). Digital literacy of modern higher education teachers. E3S Web of Conferences, 273, 12035. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202127312035

Wright, B., & Akgunduz, D. (2018). The relationship between technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) self-efficacy belief levels and the usage of web 2.0 applications of pre-service science teachers. World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues, 10(1), 52-69.

Zhu, B., Zhu, C., & Dewancker, B. (2020). A study of development mode in green campus to realize the sustainable development goals. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 21(4), 799-818. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSHE-01-2020-0021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v11i1.30978

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View Journal Stats